CSF Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Index: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

 

What is a CSF IgG index?

CSF stands for cerebrospinal fluid. It is a clear, colorless liquid found in your brain and spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord make up your central nervous system. Your central nervous system controls and coordinates everything you do, including muscle movement, organ function, and even complex thinking and planning.

IgG stands for immunoglobulin G, a type of antibody. Antibodies are proteins made by the immune system to fight viruses, bacteria, and other foreign substances. A CSF IgG index measures the levels of IgG in your cerebrospinal fluid. High levels of IgG can mean you have an autoimmune disorder. An autoimmune disorder causes your immune system to attack healthy cells, tissues, and/or organs by mistake. These disorders can cause serious health problems.

Other names: cerebrospinal fluid IgG level, cerebrospinal fluid IgG measurement CSF IgG level, IgG (Immunoglobulin G) spinal fluid, IgG synthesis rate

What is it used for?

A CSF IgG index is used to check for diseases of the central nervous system. It is often used to help diagnose multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects the central nervous system. Many people with MS have disabling symptoms including severe fatigue, weakness, difficulty walking, and vision problems. About 80 percent of MS patients have higher than normal levels of IgG.

Why do I need a CSF IgG index?

You may need a CSF IgG index if you have symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS).

Symptoms of MS include:

  • Blurred or double vision
  • Tingling in the arms, legs, or face
  • Muscle spasms
  • Weak muscles
  • Dizziness
  • Bladder control problems
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Double vision
  • Changes in behavior
  • Confusion

What happens during a CSF IgG index?

Your cerebrospinal fluid will be collected through a procedure called a spinal tap, also known as a lumbar puncture. A spinal tap is usually done in a hospital. During the procedure:

  • You will lie on your side or sit on an exam table.
  • A health care provider will clean your back and inject an anesthetic into your skin, so you won’t feel pain during the procedure. Your provider may put a numbing cream on your back before this injection.
  • Once the area on your back is completely numb, your provider will insert a thin, hollow needle between two vertebrae in your lower spine. Vertebrae are the small backbones that make up your spine.
  • Your provider will withdraw a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid for testing. This will take about five minutes.
  • You’ll need to stay very still while the fluid is being withdrawn.
  • Your provider may ask you to lie on your back for an hour or two after the procedure. This may prevent you from getting a headache afterward.

Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test?

You don’t need any special preparations for a CSF IgG index, but you may be asked to empty your bladder and bowels before the test.

Are there any risks to the test?

There is very little risk to having a spinal tap. You may feel a little pinch or pressure when the needle is inserted. After the test, you may get a headache, called a post-lumbar headache. About one in 10 people will get a post-lumbar headache. This can last for several hours or up to a week or more. If you have a headache that lasts longer than several hours, talk to your health care provider. He or she may be able to provide treatment to relieve the pain.

You may feel some pain or tenderness in your back at the site where the needle was inserted. You may also have some bleeding at the site.

What do the results mean?

If your CSF IgG index shows higher than normal levels, it may indicate:

If your IgG index shows lower than normal levels, it may indicate:

  • A disorder that weakens the immune system. These disorders make it hard to fight infections.

If your IgG index results are not normal, it may not mean you have a medical condition needing treatment. Results can vary depending on a variety of factors including your age and overall health, and medicines you are taking. If you have questions about your results, talk to your health care provider.

Is there anything else I need to know about a CSF IgG index?

The CSF IgG index is often used to help diagnose multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is not specifically an MS test. There is no single test that can tell you whether you have MS. If your health care provider thinks you have MS, you will probably have several other tests to confirm or rule out a diagnosis.

While there is no cure for MS, there are many treatments available that can help relieve symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.

References

  1. Allina Health [Internet]. Minneapolis: Allina Health; c2018. Cerebrospinal fluid IgG measurement, quantitative [updated 2016 Mar 29; cited 2018 Jan 13]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.allinahealth.org/CCS/doc/Thomson%20Consumer%20Lab%20Database/49/150438.htm
  2. Johns Hopkins Medicine [Internet]. Johns Hopkins Medicine; Health Library: Glossary: Allergy and Asthma [cited 2018 Jan 13]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/adult/allergy_and_asthma/glossary__allergy_and_asthma_85,p00018#I
  3. Johns Hopkins Medicine [Internet]. Johns Hopkins Medicine; Health Library: Lumbar Puncture (LP) [cited 2018 Jan 13]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/test_procedures/neurological/lumbar_puncture_lp_92,p07666
  4. Lab Tests Online [Internet]. Washington D.C.; American Association for Clinical Chemistry; c2001–2018. Autoimmune Diseases [updated 2017 Oct 10; cited 2018 Jan 13]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://labtestsonline.org/conditions/autoimmune-diseases
  5. Lab Tests Online [Internet]. Washington D.C.; American Association for Clinical Chemistry; c2001–2017. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis [updated 2018 Jan 13; cited 2018 Jan 13]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://labtestsonline.org/tests/cerebrospinal-fluid-csf-analysis
  6. Lab Tests Online [Internet]. Washington D.C.; American Association for Clinical Chemistry; c2001–2018. Multiple Sclerosis [updated 2017 Oct 10; cited 2018 Jan 13]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://labtestsonline.org/conditions/multiple-sclerosis
  7. Mayo Clinic: Mayo Medical Laboratories [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1995–2018. Test ID: SFIN: Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) IgG Index [cited 2018 Jan 13]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: https://www.mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/8009
  8. Merck Manual Consumer Version [Internet]. Kenilworth (NJ): Merck & Co. Inc.; c2018. Tests for Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders [cited 2018 Jan 13]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders/diagnosis-of-brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders/tests-for-brain,-spinal-cord,-and-nerve-disorders
  9. National Cancer Institute [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms: multiple myeloma [cited 2018 Jan 13]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms?cdrid=45793
  10. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through Research [cited 2018 Jan 13]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Hope-Through-Research/Multiple-Sclerosis-Hope-Through-Research#3215_4
  11. National Multiple Sclerosis Society [Internet]. National Multiple Sclerosis Society; Diagnosing MS [cited 2018 Jan 13]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://www.nationalmssociety.org/Symptoms-Diagnosis/Diagnosing-MS
  12. National Multiple Sclerosis Society [Internet]. National Multiple Sclerosis Society; MS Symptoms [cited 2018 Jan 13]; [about 4 screens]. Available from: https://www.nationalmssociety.org/Symptoms-Diagnosis/MS-Symptoms
  13. NIH U.S. National Library of Medicine: Genetics Home Reference [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Multiple Sclerosis; 2018 Jan 9 [cited 2018 Jan 13]; [about 3 screens]. Available from: https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/multiple-sclerosis
  14. University of Rochester Medical Center [Internet]. Rochester (NY): University of Rochester Medical Center; c2018. Health Encyclopedia: Quantitative Immunoglobulins [cited 2018 Jan 13]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=167&contentid=quantitative_immunoglobulins
  15. UW Health: American Family Children’s Hospital [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics Authority; c2018. Kids Health: Spinal Tap [cited 2018 Jan 13]; [about 5 screens]. Available from: https://www.uwhealthkids.org/kidshealth/en/parents/lumbar-puncture.html/
  16. UW Health [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics Authority; c2018. Immunoglobulins: Test Overview [updated 2017 Oct 9; cited 2018 Jan 13]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.uwhealth.org/health/topic/medicaltest/immunoglobulins/hw41342.html
  17. UW Health [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin Hospitals and Clinics Authority; c2018. Immunoglobulins: Results [updated 2017 Oct 9; cited 2018 Jan 13]; [about 8 screens]. Available from: https://www.uwhealth.org/health/topic/medicaltest/immunoglobulins/hw41342.html#hw41354

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What is Tinnitus?

For most, tinnitus — a ringing in the ears — is an occasional annoyance. But for some people, it can last 6 months or more.

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Internal Medicine Residency Program – Mayo Clinic in Arizona

Janis Blair, M.D., Program Director of the Internal Medicine Residency in Arizona, discusses the curriculum which provides a strong core with outstanding opportunities for personal adaptation through ample research and elective time, coupled with the strong mentors and resources of Mayo Clinic. Drs. Jewel Kling, Emanuel Pauwels and Krishni Somaratne share their experiences as residents and explain why they chose to attend this program.

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Phosphate in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

 

What is a phosphate in urine test?

A phosphate in urine test measures the amount of phosphate in your urine. Phosphate is an electrically charged particle that contains the mineral phosphorous. Phosphorous works together with the mineral calcium to build strong bones and teeth. It also plays an essential role in nerve function and how the body uses energy.

Your kidneys control the amount of phosphate in your body. If you have a problem with your kidneys, it can affect your phosphate levels. Phosphate levels that are too low or too high can be a sign of a serious health problem.

Other names: phosphorous test, P, PO4

What is it used for?

A phosphate in urine test may be used to:

  • Help diagnose kidney problems
  • Find the cause of a kidney stone, a small, pebble-like substance that can form in the kidneys
  • Diagnose disorders of the endocrine system. The endocrine system is a group of glands that release hormones into your body. Hormones are chemical substances that control many important functions, including growth, sleep, and how your body uses food for energy.

Why do I need a phosphate in urine test?

Most people with high phosphate levels don’t have any symptoms.

You may need a phosphate in urine test if you have symptoms of a low phosphate level. These include:

  • Fatigue
  • Muscle cramping
  • Loss of appetite
  • Joint pain

You may also need a phosphate in urine test if you’ve had abnormal results on a calcium test. Calcium and phosphate work together, so problems with calcium levels can mean problems with phosphate levels as well. Calcium testing in blood and/or urine is often part of a routine checkup.

What happens during a phosphate in urine test?

You’ll need to collect all your urine during a 24-hour period. This is called a 24-hour urine sample test. Your health care provider or a laboratory professional will give you a container to collect your urine in and instructions on how to collect and store your samples. A 24-hour urine sample test generally includes the following steps:

  • Empty your bladder in the morning and flush that urine down. Do not collect this urine. Record the time.
  • For the next 24 hours, save all your urine in the container provided.
  • Store your urine container in a refrigerator or a cooler with ice.
  • Return the sample container to your health provider’s office or the laboratory as instructed.

Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test?

You don’t need any special preparations for a phosphate in urine test. Be sure to carefully follow all the instructions for providing a 24-hour urine sample.

Are there any risks to the test?

There is no known risk to having a phosphate in urine test.

What do the results mean?

The terms phosphate and phosphorous can mean the same thing in test results. So your results may show phosphorous levels rather than phosphate levels.

If your test shows you have high phosphate/phosphorous levels, it may mean you have:

  • Kidney disease
  • Too much vitamin D in your body
  • Hyperparathyroidism, a condition in which your parathyroid gland produces too much parathyroid hormone. The parathyroid gland is a small gland in your neck that helps control the amount of calcium in your blood.

If your test shows you have low phosphate/phosphorous levels, it may mean you have:

  • Kidney disease
  • Liver disease
  • Malnutrition
  • Alcoholism
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Osteomalacia (also known as rickets), a condition that causes bones to become soft and deformed. It’s caused by a vitamin D deficiency.

If your phosphate/phosphorous levels are not normal, it doesn’t necessarily mean you have a medical condition needing treatment. Other factors, such as your diet, can affect your results. Also, children often have higher phosphate levels because their bones are still growing. If you have questions about your results, talk to your health care provider.

Is there anything else I need to know about a phosphate in urine test?

Phosphate is sometimes tested in the blood instead of urine.

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Why Does Hair Go Gray?

Your first gray hair can be upsetting. So why does your hair lose its color as you age?

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Why does hair turn gray?

Robert H. Shmerling, MD
Faculty Editor, Harvard Health Publishing

 

If you look at photos of President Obama taken before he ran for president and since he left office, you’ll notice a distinct difference: where there used to be only dark brown hair, there is now far more gray than brown. It seems that the stress of running a country would turn any person’s hair gray. But is stress really to blame? And why does hair turn gray, even for those of us who don’t have jobs quite as stressful as President of the United States?

Stress doesn’t actually turn hair gray. In fact, hair doesn’t actually “turn” gray. Once a hair follicle produces hair, the color is set. If a single strand of hair starts out brown (or red or black or blond), it is never going to turn gray. Your hair follicles produce less color as they age, so when hair goes through its natural cycle of dying and being regenerated, it’s more likely to grow in as gray beginning after age 35. Genetics can play a role in when this starts.

While being under stress can’t turn your hair gray, stress can trigger a common condition called telogen effluvium, which causes hair to shed at about three times faster than normal. The hair grows back, so the condition doesn’t cause balding. But if you’re middle-aged and your hair is falling out and regenerating more quickly because of stress, it’s possible that the hair that grows in will be gray instead of its original color.

Illnesses that cause gray hair

The vast majority of people with gray hair have age-related graying. However, sometimes graying hair indicates an illness, especially if it occurs at a particularly young age. Health problems that may be heralded by gray hair include:

  • vitamin B12 deficiency
  • neurofibromatosis (also called Von Recklinghausen’s disease): this group of inherited diseases causes tumors to grow along nerves and abnormal development of the bones and skin.
  • tuberous sclerosis: an uncommon, inherited condition that causes benign tumors in multiple organs (including the brain, heart, kidneys, eyes, lungs, and skin).
  • thyroid disease
  • vitiligo: this condition causes melanocytes (the cells at the base of hair follicles that produce color) to be lost or destroyed — perhaps because the immune system “misfires” and attacks the scalp rather than an infection.
  • alopecia areata: a disorder in which patches of hair may be suddenly lost, especially the colored (non-gray) hairs. This may lead to “overnight” graying because previously present gray or white hairs suddenly become more obvious. When hair growth resumes, it may be white or gray, but colored hair may eventually return.

Some research also links premature graying to heart disease and low bone mass (called osteopenia, a precursor of osteoporosis). How these conditions relate to hair graying is unclear. Cigarette smoking can also cause premature graying.

The bottom line

When and how thoroughly your hair turns gray is influenced mostly by the genes you inherit from your parents. Though stress may play a role in the process, it would be more helpful to look to past generations rather than your current stress levels to help you predict when or if you’ll go gray. That’s true whether you’re the President of the United States, or someone with a less stressful job.

Shoulder Replacement and Reverse Replacement for Shoulder Pain – Joaquin Sanchez-Sotelo, M.D.

Joaquin Sanchez-Sotelo, M.D., a Mayo Clinic orthopedic surgeon, discusses the evaluation, diagnosis, procedure and treatment of Shoulder Replacement and Reverse Replacement for Shoulder Pain.

For more information, visit: http://www.mayoclinic.org/departments-centers/orthopedic-surgery/overview/?mc_id=youtube

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BRCA Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

 

What is a BRCA test?

A BRCA test looks for changes, known as mutations, in genes called BRCA1 and BRCA2. Genes are parts of DNA passed down from your mother and father. They carry information that determine your unique traits, such as height and eye color. Genes are also responsible for certain health conditions. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are genes that protect cells by making proteins that help prevent tumors from forming.

A mutation in a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene can cause cell damage that may lead to cancer. Women with a mutated BRCA gene have a higher risk of getting breast or ovarian cancer. Men with a mutated BRCA gene are at a higher risk for getting breast or prostate cancer. Not everyone who inherits a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation will get cancer. Other factors, including your lifestyle and environment, can affect your cancer risk.

If you find out you have a BRCA mutation, you may be able to take steps to protect your health.

Other names: BRCA gene test, BRCA gene 1, BRCA gene 2, breast cancer susceptibility gene1, breast cancer susceptibility gene 2

What is it used for?

This test is used to find out if you have BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation. A BRCA gene mutation can increase your risk of getting cancer.

Why do I need a BRCA test?

BRCA testing is not recommended for most people. BRCA gene mutations are rare, affecting only about 0.2 percent of the U.S. population. But you may want this test if you think you are at a higher risk of having the mutation. You are more likely to have a BRCA mutation if you:

  • Have or had breast cancer that was diagnosed before age 50
  • Have or had breast cancer in both breasts
  • Have or had both breast and ovarian cancer
  • Have one or more family members with breast cancer
  • Have a male relative with breast cancer
  • Have a relative already diagnosed with a BRCA mutation
  • Are of Ashkenazi (Eastern European) Jewish ancestry. BRCA mutations are much more common in this group compared to the general population. BRCA mutations are also more common in people from other parts of Europe, including, Iceland, Norway, and Denmark.

What happens during a BRCA test?

A health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out. This usually takes less than five minutes.

Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test?

You don’t need any special preparations for BRCA testing. But you may want to meet with a genetic counselor first to see if the test is right for you. Your counselor may talk with you about the risks and benefits of genetic testing and what different results can mean.

You should also think about getting genetic counseling after your test. Your counselor can discuss how your results may impact you and your family, both medically and emotionally.

Are there any risks to the test?

There is very little risk to having a blood test. You may have slight pain or bruising at the spot where the needle was put in, but most symptoms go away quickly.

What do the results mean?

Most results are described as negative, uncertain, or positive, and typically mean the following:

  • A negative result means no BRCA gene mutation was found, but it doesn’t mean you won’t ever get cancer.
  • An uncertain result means some kind of BRCA gene mutation was found, but it may or may not be linked with an increased cancer risk. You may need more tests and/or monitoring if your results were uncertain.
  • A positive result means a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 was found. These mutations put you at a higher risk of getting cancer. But not everyone with the mutation gets cancer.

It may take several weeks to get your results. If you have questions about your results, talk to your health care provider and/or your genetic counselor.

Is there anything else I need to know about a BRCA test?

If your results show you have a BRCA gene mutation, you can take steps that may lower your risk of breast cancer. These include:

  • More frequent cancer screening tests, such as mammograms and ultrasounds. Cancer is easier to treat when it’s found in the early stages.
  • Taking birth control pills for a limited time. Taking birth control pills for a maximum of five years has been shown to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer in some women with BRCA gene mutations. Taking the pills for more than five years to reduce cancer is not recommended. If you were taking birth control pills before you took the BRCA test, tell your health care provider how old you were when you started taking the pills and for how long. He or she will then recommend whether or not you should continue taking them.
  • Taking cancer-fighting medicines. Certain drugs, such as one called tamoxifen, have been shown to reduce the risk in women with a higher risk of breast cancer.
  • Having surgery, known as a preventive mastectomy, to remove healthy breast tissue. Preventive mastectomy has been shown to reduce breast cancer risk by as much as 90 percent in women with a BRCA gene mutation. But this is a major operation, only recommended for women at very high risk for getting cancer.

You should talk with your health care provider to see what steps are best for you.

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CD4 Lymphocyte Count: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

 

What is a CD4 count?

A CD4 count is a test that measures the number of CD4 cells in your blood. CD4 cells, also known as T cells, are white blood cells that fight infection and play an important role in your immune system. A CD4 count is used to check the health of the immune system in people infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus).

HIV attacks and destroys CD4 cells. If too many CD4 cells are lost, your immune system will have trouble fighting off infections. A CD4 count can help your health care provider find out if you are at risk for serious complications from HIV. The test can also check to see how well HIV medicines are working.

Other names: CD4 lymphocyte count CD4+ count, T4 count, T-helper cell count, CD4 percent

What is it used for?

A CD4 count may be used to:

  • See how HIV is affecting your immune system. This can help your health care provider find out if you are at higher risk for complications from the disease.
  • Decide whether to start or change your HIV medicine
  • Diagnose AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
    • The names HIV and AIDS are both used to describe the same disease. But most people with HIV don’t have AIDS. AIDS is diagnosed when your CD4 count is extremely low.
    • AIDS is the most severe form of HIV infection. It badly damages the immune system and can lead to opportunistic infections. These are serious, often life-threatening, conditions that take advantage of very weak immune systems.

You may also need a CD4 count if you’ve had an organ transplant. Organ transplant patients take special medicines to make sure the immune system won’t attack the new organ. For these patients, a low CD4 count is good, and means the medicine is working.

Why do I need a CD4 count?

Your health care provider may order a CD4 count when you are first diagnosed with HIV. You will probably be tested again every few months to see if your counts have changed since your first test. If you are being treated for HIV, your health care provider may order regular CD4 counts to see how well your medicines are working.

Your provider may include other tests with your CD4 count, including:

  • A CD4-CD8 ratio. CD8 cells are another type of white blood cell in the immune system. CD8 cells kill cancer cells and other invaders. This test compares the numbers of the two cells to get a better idea of immune system function.
  • HIV viral load, a test that measures the amount of HIV in your blood.

What happens during a CD4 count?

A health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out. This usually takes less than five minutes.

Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test?

You don’t need any special preparations for a CD4 count.

Are there any risks to the test?

There is very little risk to having a blood test. You may have slight pain or bruising at the spot where the needle was put in, but most symptoms go away quickly.

What do the results mean?

CD4 results are given as a number of cells per cubic millimeter of blood. Below is a list of typical results. Your results may vary depending on your health and even the lab used for testing. If you have questions about your results, talk to your health care provider.

  • Normal: 500–1,200 cells per cubic millimeter
  • Abnormal: 250–500 cells per cubic millimeter. It means you have a weakened immune system and may be infected with HIV.
  • Abnormal: 200 or fewer cells per cubic millimeter. It indicates AIDS and a high risk of life-threatening opportunistic infections.

While there is no cure for HIV, there are different medicines you can take to protect your immune system and can prevent you from getting AIDS. Today, people with HIV are living longer, with a better quality of life than ever before. If you are living with HIV, it’s important to see your health care provider regularly.

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The FAQs of Knee Replacement Surgery with Dr. Ortiguera – Mayo Clinic

Cedric Ortiguera, M.D., orthopedic surgeon at the Mayo Clinic campus in Jacksonville discusses several frequently asked questions regarding osteoarthritis and knee replacement surgery. In this video, Dr. Ortiguera mentions how osteoarthritis is the most common reason for needing knee replacement surgery and how there is currently no cure for osteoarthritis. He describes how knee replacement surgery replaces the worn out cartilage in the knee with an artificial knee cap.

To learn more, visit http://mayocl.in/2zR5wLJ.

This video will mention:
• The success rate of surgery
• The duration of your time in the hospital including, surgery, post surgery and physical therapy.
• The length of time to expect a knee replacement to last
• The types of low impact activities that you will be able to do with a knee replacement
• The potential complications of a knee replacement
• How Mayo Clinic will help control the pain during the surgery and during the recovery process
• The advances in knee replacement technology
• The rate of recovery for a knee replacement surgery

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How Does Acupuncture Work?

Can you use pain to stop pain? Take a closer look at the history and benefits of acupuncture.

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