Neutropenia – Mayo Clinic

Dr. Carola Arndt, a Pediatric Hematologist/Oncologist at Mayo Clinic, shares an overview of Neutropenia, an abnormally low count of neutrophils, white blood cells that help the immune system fight off infections. Dr. Arndt discusses symptoms, causes, diagnoses, and treatment options.

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Type 2 Diabetes 101

Why is type 2 diabetes so devastating to the body?

Get reliable information about type 2 diabetes, tips from diabetes experts, and real-life stories about people living with type 2 diabetes.
http://diabetes.webmd.com/type-2-diabetes-tv/default.htm

Reviewed By: Varnada Karriem-Norwood, August 2012
SOURCES: National Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2007. C. Ronald Kahn, MD Vice Chair, Joslin Diabetes Center.
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Flu and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) – Mayo Clinic

Mayo Clinic doctors say its very important to get flu shots. Not just because they protect you against influenza, but also because if you do get sick with the flu, the vaccine reduces your chances of developing a potentially deadly complication called Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Hear one patient’s story of being on a ventilator for almost two months after developing ARDS.

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5-Minute Cool Down

Follow this simple post-workout routine to cool off and recover from your workout.

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Facts | Stillbirth | NCBDDD

 

The loss of a baby due to stillbirth remains a sad reality for many families and takes a serious toll on families’ health and well-being. Learn more about stillbirth below.

Family grieving the loss of a baby due to stillbirth

What is stillbirth?

A stillbirth is the death or loss of a baby before or during delivery. Both miscarriage and stillbirth describe pregnancy loss, but they differ according to when the loss occurs. In the United States, a miscarriage is usually defined as loss of a baby before the 20th week of pregnancy, and a stillbirth is loss of a baby after 20 weeks of pregnancy.

Stillbirth is further classified as either early, late, or term.

  • An early stillbirth is a fetal death occurring between 20 and 27 completed weeks of pregnancy.
  • A late stillbirth occurs between 28 and 36 completed pregnancy weeks.
  • A term stillbirth occurs between 37 or more completed pregnancy weeks..

Stillbirth: A Healthcare Professional’s Role

Image of PDF Factsheet - Stillbirth: A Healthcare Professional's Role

How Many Babies Are Stillborn?

Stillbirth effects about 1% of all pregnancies, and each year about 24,000 babies are stillborn in the United States.1 That is about the same number of babies that die during the first year of life and it is more than 10 times as many deaths as the number that occur from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).2

Because of advances in medical technology over the last 30 years, prenatal care (medical care during pregnancy) has improved, which has dramatically reduced the number of late and term stillbirth.3 However, the rate of early stillbirth has remained about the same over time.3

What Increases the Risk of Stillbirth?

The causes of many stillbirths are unknown. Therefore, families are often left grieving without answers to their questions. Stillbirth is not a cause of death, but rather a term that means a baby’s death during the pregnancy. Some women blame themselves, but rarely are these deaths caused by something a woman did or did not do. Known contributors to stillbirth generally fall into one of three broad categories:

  • Problems with the baby (birth defects or genetic problems)
  • Problems with the placenta or umbilical cord (this is where the mother and baby exchange oxygen and nutrients)
  • Certain conditions in the mother (for example, uncontrolled diabetes, high blood pressure, or obesity)

Stillbirth with an unknown cause is called “unexplained stillbirth.” Having an unexplained stillbirth is more likely to occur the further along a woman is in her pregnancy.

A somber couple holding one another

Although stillbirth occurs in families of all races, ethnicities, and income levels, and to women of all ages, some women are at higher risk for having a stillbirth. Some of the factors that increase the risk for a stillbirth include the mother:

  • being of black race
  • being a teenager
  • being 35 years of age or older
  • being unmarried
  • being obese
  • smoking cigarettes during pregnancy
  • having certain medical conditions, such as high blood pressure or diabetes
  • having multiple pregnancies
  • having had a previous pregnancy loss

These factors are also associated with other poor pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth.

State laws require the reporting of fetal deaths, and federal law supports national collection and publication of fetal death data. The National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) released the first ever report on cause of fetal death using national data in 2016.

What can be done?

CDC works to learn more about who might have a stillbirth and why. CDC does this by tracking how often stillbirth occurs and researching what causes stillbirth and how to prevent it. Knowledge about the potential causes of stillbirth can be used to develop recommendations, policies, and services to help prevent stillbirth. While we continue to learn more about stillbirth, much work remains. To learn more about CDC’s activities, visit the Stillbirth CDC Activities page.

References

  1. Macdorman MF, Gregory ECW. Fetal and perinatal mortality, United States, 2013. National vital statistics reports; vol 64 no 8. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2015. [Read report]
  2. Xu JQ, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Arias E. Mortality in the United States, 2012. NCHS data brief, no 168. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2014. [Read report]
  3. MacDorman MF, Kirmeyer SE, Wilson EC. Fetal and perinatal mortality, United States, 2006. National vital statistics reports; vol 60 no 8. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2012. [Read data brief]

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LIVING AND BREATHING MEDICINE – CLERKSHIP

Third year Mayo Medical Student, Theresa Cheng, talks about transitioning to the wards as she works towards becoming a compassionate physician, translating the knowledge learned in first and second year into the reality of patient-centered medicine.

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Emergency 101

 

At what point does a fever or stomachache become a medical emergency? If you slice your finger with a knife, or you are having the worst headache you’ve ever had, should you seek emergency care? How do you know?

The following is advice for how to handle common emergency medical conditions. This section does not contain all the signs or symptoms of medical emergencies, and the advice is not intended to be a substitute for consulting with a medical professional. If you think you are experiencing a medical emergency, seek immediate medical attention.

Abdominal or belly pain can have many causes. It may be due to food poisoning, an intestinal or gall bladder obstruction, an infection or inflammation. It could also be appendicitis, a kidney stone or peptic ulcer disease.

Many drugs cause side effects, and certain medicines can trigger life threatening reactions allergic and non allergic in some people. Some medicines also interact with other medications and cause adverse drug reactions.

Anaphylaxis is a severe, life threatening, multisystemic allergic reaction that is triggered by common substances, such as foods, insect stings, medications and latex.

Although asthma and allergies are two separate conditions asthma is a chronic disease of the bronchial airtubes, whereas allergies involve an overreaction of the body’s disease fighting immune system the two conditions can be intertwined and often overlap.

Acute back problems may be experienced by almost everyone at some point in their lives. There are many causes of back pain, including accidents, muscle strains, sports injuries; acquired nerve, disc or muscle disorders; mechanical problems involving the spine; and infections and tumors.

Most bites and stings are easily treatable and non threatening. However, some insects, snakes, jellyfish and even humans can bite or break the skin and potentially introduce disease into your body.

Broken bones (also called fractures) are a common injury for adults and children. They may be caused by falls, motor vehicle crashes, direct blows and even intentional injuries, such as violence and child abuse.

About 4,000 people die each year in the United States from fire and burn injuries. Burns are one of the leading causes of childhood injury. They can be caused by scalding from hot liquids or cooking oils, contact with flames, or from overexposure to the sun.

Emergency physicians used a patient’s personal activity tracker and smartphone to identify the time his heart arrhythmia started, which allowed them to treat his new-onset atrial fibrillation with electrical cardioversion and discharge him home.

The recent and sudden deaths of several well-known celebrities from heart-related issues should focus everyone’s attention on the dangers of heart disease and knowing the symptoms of a serious problem.

ACEP recommends that the Heimlich Maneuver be employed only when a person is choking and his or her life is endangered by a windpipe obstruction.

Most cuts are minor, but it’s still important to care for them. Most can be treated by cleaning with soap and water and applying a clean bandage.

It is estimated that more than 20 million people in the United States have diabetes, with an estimated six million people being unaware they have it.

Earaches and ear infections can have a variety of causes – viral, bacterial and fungal – and can affect different parts of the ear.

Causes of electrical injury and shock include accidental exposure to household or appliance wiring, arcs from power lines, the severing of an electrical cord or sticking of foreign objects into an outlet (typically in the case of a young child).

Eye wounds and emergencies can include cuts and scratches, traumatic injuries from foreign objects, burns and chemical exposure (e.g., cleaning solutions, garden chemicals). Any of these conditions can potentially lead to vision loss if left untreated. Always wear eye protection.

Fainting is a loss of consciousness caused when the blood supply to the brain is momentarily interrupted. While typically sudden and alarming, it usually is not harmful (unless the person suffers fainting related injuries), and consciousness is typically regained quickly.

Fever by itself is not an illness, but a symptom for a range of medical conditions. It also can be a side effect of some medications. Fever is one of the most common reasons that parents visit an emergency department with a child.

In the United States approximately 10,000 people die each year from food poisoning, and many more become ill and require medical attention.

Young children, especially those under age five, sometimes put items, such as marbles, beads, dried beans, tiny button-shaped batteries or small toys in their ears, noses and mouths. It’s important to seek immediate medical attention to remove them, if they are not easily removable.

Head injuries can be caused by falls, motor vehicle crashes and even violence. It’s important to prevent injuries by buckling your seat belt in your car and wearing safety equipment, such as helmets, while biking or playing sports.

Headaches have a variety of causes. Some are caused by stress and muscle tension, while others may be caused by lack of sleep, a delayed meal, an injury or even foods (e.g., lack of caffeine, alcohol, chocolate, cheeses, nuts, food).

Heat related illness can be caused by overexposure to the sun or any situation that involves extreme heat. Young children and the elderly are most at risk, but anyone can be affected.

Hypothermia is a potentially life-threatening condition caused by overexposure to cold air or cold water. Although most people typically are not at risk of developing hypothermia, the condition can strike anyone, depending on their individual circumstances, weather conditions and level of exposure in a cold or wet environment.

Medical emergencies can be frightening and stressful. But knowing what to do in an emergency can help you effectively deal with the situation. Here you can find information about emergencies.

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5-Minute Metabolism Jumpstart

Use this high-intensity interval training session to boost your metabolism. You’ll complete a series of five exercises, and also learn how to adapt them for any level of fitness.

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Mayo Clinic’s First Face Transplant: The Patient

“There are no words to express just how grateful I am for this gift,” says Andy Sandness, the recipient of Mayo Clinic’s first-ever face transplant. This video profiles Mr. Sandness’ decade long journey – from a “devastating” injury to being selected as Mayo’s first patient to undergo this life-transforming procedure.

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Steam Treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Mayo Clinic Radio

Dr. Tobias Kohler, a urologist at Mayo Clinic, explains a promising new treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH. This interview originally aired on Feb. 24, 2018.

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What Happens During an Angioplasty?

Take a peek at how this procedure opens narrow arteries to help blood flow more freely. Learn more: http://wb.md/2e7Q6d1

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Surviving Sepsis – Mayo Clinic

Our bodies are very good at fighting infections. The immune system reacts and attacks the bacteria and viruses that make us sick. But sometimes the immune reaction is so strong that it damages the body too. This is called a septic reaction, or sepsis. And the mortality rate associated with it can be high. Doctors at Mayo Clinic want to change that. They’ve organized a sepsis response team in the intensive care unit. Their goal: to stop sepsis and save lives.

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