What Happens to Your Body When You Sneeze?

A simple sneeze can travel up to 100 miles an hour and spray a cloud of 100,000 germs. Sounds gross, but sneezing is actually a protective reflex that’s designed to keep you healthy. Here’s what happens to your body when you sneeze.

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Information vs. Knowledge

This is a video that discusses the difference between information (looking at the past or present) and knowledge (developing theories). It reminds us that using information to intervene in a system can lead to tampering. Dr. John Bachman shows a rooster being knowledgeable and totally wrong. In the end though, the rooster just gets more knowledge and improves his theories.

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Mayo Clinic Excellence and Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education

Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit worldwide leader in medical care, research and education. It is the first and largest integrated group practice in the world. Doctors, from every medical specialty, work together to care for patients, joined by common systems and a philosophy that the needs of the patient come first. Mayo Clinic has campuses in Rochester, Minn.; Jacksonville, Fla.; and Phoenix/Scottsdale, Ariz.; and also serves over 70 communities in the upper Midwest through Mayo Clinic Health System. Collectively, these locations care for more than 1 million people each year. Mayo Clinic values and promotes individual and cultural diversity. A climate that nurtures and supports the fullest contributions of everyone is essential to Mayo Clinic’s success. It is the responsibility of all who provide service and learn at Mayo Clinic to create and sustain this climate. Mayo Clinic’s educational programs span the continuum of health care professions and ensure that the legacy of Mayo’s unique style of patient care continues. Learn more about Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education http://www.mayo.edu/msgme/ .

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Poikiloderma with neutropenia

 

  • Arnold AW, Itin PH, Pigors M, Kohlhase J, Bruckner-Tuderman L, Has C. Poikiloderma with neutropenia: a novel C16orf57 mutation and clinical diagnostic criteria. Br J Dermatol. 2010 Oct;163(4):866-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.2010.09929.x. Epub 2010 Sep 7.
  • Colombo EA, Bazan JF, Negri G, Gervasini C, Elcioglu NH, Yucelten D, Altunay I, Cetincelik U, Teti A, Del Fattore A, Luciani M, Sullivan SK, Yan AC, Volpi L, Larizza L. Novel C16orf57 mutations in patients with Poikiloderma with Neutropenia: bioinformatic analysis of the protein and predicted effects of all reported mutations. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2012 Jan 23;7:7. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-7-7.
  • Farruggia P, Indaco S, Dufour C, Lanza T, Mosa C, Macaluso A, Milioto M, D’Angelo P, Lanciotti M. Poikiloderma with neutropenia: a case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2014 May;36(4):297-300. doi: 10.1097/MPH.0b013e31829f35e7. Review.
  • Hilcenko C, Simpson PJ, Finch AJ, Bowler FR, Churcher MJ, Jin L, Packman LC, Shlien A, Campbell P, Kirwan M, Dokal I, Warren AJ. Aberrant 3′ oligoadenylation of spliceosomal U6 small nuclear RNA in poikiloderma with neutropenia. Blood. 2013 Feb 7;121(6):1028-38. doi: 10.1182/blood-2012-10-461491. Epub 2012 Nov 27.
  • Koparir A, Gezdirici A, Koparir E, Ulucan H, Yilmaz M, Erdemir A, Yuksel A, Ozen M. Poikiloderma with neutropenia: genotype-ethnic origin correlation, expanding phenotype and literature review. Am J Med Genet A. 2014 Oct;164A(10):2535-40. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36683. Epub 2014 Jul 16.
  • Mroczek S, Dziembowski A. U6 RNA biogenesis and disease association. Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA. 2013 Sep-Oct;4(5):581-92. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1181. Epub 2013 Jun 14. Review.
  • Mroczek S, Krwawicz J, Kutner J, Lazniewski M, Kuciński I, Ginalski K, Dziembowski A. C16orf57, a gene mutated in poikiloderma with neutropenia, encodes a putative phosphodiesterase responsible for the U6 snRNA 3′ end modification. Genes Dev. 2012 Sep 1;26(17):1911-25. doi: 10.1101/gad.193169.112. Epub 2012 Aug 16.
  • Shchepachev V, Azzalin CM. The Mpn1 RNA exonuclease: cellular functions and implication in disease. FEBS Lett. 2013 Jun 27;587(13):1858-62. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2013.05.005. Epub 2013 May 15. Review.
  • Volpi L, Roversi G, Colombo EA, Leijsten N, Concolino D, Calabria A, Mencarelli MA, Fimiani M, Macciardi F, Pfundt R, Schoenmakers EF, Larizza L. Targeted next-generation sequencing appoints c16orf57 as clericuzio-type poikiloderma with neutropenia gene. Am J Hum Genet. 2010 Jan;86(1):72-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.11.014. Epub 2009 Dec 10. Erratum in: Am J Hum Genet. 2010 Sep 10;87(3):445.
  • Walne AJ, Vulliamy T, Beswick R, Kirwan M, Dokal I. Mutations in C16orf57 and normal-length telomeres unify a subset of patients with dyskeratosis congenita, poikiloderma with neutropenia and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2010 Nov 15;19(22):4453-61. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddq371. Epub 2010 Sep 3.
  • Wang L, Clericuzio C, Larizza L. Poikiloderma with Neutropenia. 2017 Oct 26. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, Wallace SE, Bean LJH, Stephens K, Amemiya A, editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2018. Available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459118/

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Countdown to Baby: 5 Signs of Labor

You’ll know you’re really close to meeting your baby when you notice these five labor signs.

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The AntiBiotic Resistance Crisis and How the Platypus Might Save Us All

Although platypuses are deeply unusual animals, as researchers dig deeper into their biochemistry, it seems that they might hold the key to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance.

Antibiotic resistance is a topic that sits squarely in the center of medical researchers’ minds; it’s a huge concern.  In fact, many scientists consider it to be one of the “world’s most pressing public health problems.”

In a nutshell, antibiotic resistance occurs when a species of bacteria becomes immune to antibiotics.  Once bacteria have developed an ambivalence to these drugs, they are able to survive their onslaught and pass antibiotic-resistant genes onto the next generation.

But today, diseases that were once very easily treatable with antibiotics — such as pneumonia and tuberculosis — are becoming life-threatening.  The World Health Organization (WHO) pull no punches when they write, “Without urgent action, we are heading for a post-antibiotic era, in which common infections and minor injuries can once again kill.”

As we use these drugs more and more, an increasing number are becoming ineffective.  On this dimly lit and deeply worrying backdrop, the platypus waddles into the spotlight. Can this reclusive, semi-aquatic weirdo lift this sense of impending doom?

The peculiar platypus

The platypus needs no introduction, but I’ll give you one anyway because they’re just so pleasing to consider.

Platypuses are monotremes — that is, a subgroup of mammals that comprises just five species (the platypus and four species of the hedgehog-like echidna). The former is one of the most iconic and baffling animals on the planet.

She’s hairy and warm-blooded, similar to standard mammals, yet she lays eggs. She has a duck-like bill and a beaver-like tail, and she is one of the very few venomous mammals.

The strangeness doesn’t stop there, however; the female has two ovaries — no surprise — but only the left one actually works. Also, baby platypuses are born with teeth, but, at an early age, they all fall out, leaving a horny plate.

So, how on earth could such a natural oddity help to save the human race from the horrors of antibiotic resistance? Well, the answer might lie in its milk.

According to an earlier study, platypus milk contains unique antibacterial properties. The authors report that proteins in their milk “were effective in killing a broad range of bacterial pathogens.”

Investigating platypus milk in detail

Recently, a team of researchers from Australia’s Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) combined forces with Deakin University in Victoria, also in Australia. They wanted to examine the almighty prowess of platypus milk and attempt to understand why it’s so potent. Their results were recently published in the journal Structural Biology Communications.

In the laboratory, the scientists replicated the platypus milk protein responsible for its antibacterial powers and gave it a long, hard inspection. As Dr. Julie Sharp, from Deakin University, states, “We were interested to examine the protein’s structure and characteristics to find out exactly what part of the protein was doing what.”

Recreating a protein in the laboratory sounds, at first reading, to be a relatively simple job — but it’s not. Achieving this feat took the combined might of the Synchrotron, a cyclic particle accelerator, and the CSIRO’s ultra-hi-tech Collaborative Crystallisation Centre.

The magical, bacteria-slaughtering capabilities of the milk protein might come from its unique 3-D folding. The protein has a ringlet-like formation, thus earning it the nickname Shirley Temple. The intriguing format of the protein has not been seen in nature before.

“Platypus[es] are such weird animals that it would make sense for them to have weird biochemistry.”

Lead study author Dr. Janet Newman

Why is the platypus’s milk so powerful?

The platypus is a conundrum of a creature with miraculous milk.  Unlike the vast majority of mammals, the platypus has no nipples (which is yet another reason why platypuses are considered one of planet Earth’s oddest residents). So, without nipples, the mother platypus secretes milk from a patch of skin.

As an aside, baby platypuses — rather boringly — are officially called “baby platypuses.” However, there are more pleasing, if unofficial, names, including puggles and platypups, so feel free to use whichever you deem cutest.

I’ll stick with baby platypuses for the sake of maintaining some degree of scientific integrity. But as I was saying, since there are no teets, the mother’s milk comes into contact with the outside world, and the baby platypus must lick the milk from the surrounding hair.

Of course, this opens the young animals up to an unholy array of bacteria and other nasties. This, perhaps, is the reason that platypus milk needs to be so profoundly antibacterial.

Shirley Temple may open the door to other fields of study, too; Dr. Newman says, “Although we’ve identified this highly unusual protein as only existing in monotremes, this discovery increases our knowledge of protein structures in general and will go on to inform other drug discovery work done at the Centre.”

For now, we will have to wait and see how this new protein might be unleashed in the war against antibiotic resistance. Hopefully, the wait will not be a long one. God bless the platypups!


While we cannot yet guarantee you find a physician in our ever-growing network to supply you with platypus milk, you can certainly find one to help with any lingering infection you may have…or any other concern for which you should see a good doctor .  At HealthLynked, we are connecting patients and the physicians that care for them in a social ecosystem with a higher purpose – Improving HealthCare.

Ready to get Lynked?  Go to HealthLynked.c0m today to sign up for free and start taking control of your healthcare.

Sources:

Newman, Tim. “Platypus milk: The key to preventing deadly infections?”, Medical News Today, Wednesday, 21 March 2018

 

 

3HP for Latent TB Infection Treatment | 2018 | Newsroom | NCHHSTP

 

June 28, 2018 – 3HP for Latent TB Infection Treatment

CDC released updated recommendations for use of once-weekly isoniazid-rifapentine for 12 weeks (3HP) for treatment of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection. The updated recommendations support expanded use of an effective, shorter, treatment regimen to reach even more people with latent TB infection. The 3HP regimen can help remove current barriers to latent TB treatment for both patients and providers.

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How Your Body Uses Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a crucial building block in every cell in your body. Learn how it can help — and hurt — your health.

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Fibromyalgia – Genetics Home Reference

 

Fibromyalgia is known to run in families, suggesting that genetic factors contribute to the risk of developing this disease. However, little is known for certain about the genetic basis of fibromyalgia. It is likely that variations in many genes, each with a small effect, combine to increase the risk of developing this condition.

The signs and symptoms of fibromyalgia are related to the way the brain recognizes and interprets pain signals. People with fibromyalgia have an increased sensitivity to pain; they feel pain more acutely than others would in response to a given stimulus. Researchers describe this phenomenon as the “volume” of pain sensations being turned up too high (pain amplification). Studies of the genetics of fibromyalgia have focused on genes with roles in the way the brain processes pain. For example, several genes that may influence the condition are involved in the production and breakdown of certain chemical messengers called . These chemicals relay signals between nerve cells that can increase or decrease the sensation of pain, a process known as pain modulation.

Nongenetic (environmental) factors also play critical roles in a person’s risk of developing fibromyalgia. The disorder can be triggered by infection or illness that would not otherwise cause chronic pain, injury, and other physical stress. Psychological and social factors such as a history of childhood abuse or neglect, exposure to war or other catastrophic events, and low job or life satisfaction have also been associated with an increased risk of fibromyalgia. Additionally, physical inactivity, obesity, and sleep disturbances seem to increase risk. However, many people who develop this condition do not have any recognized triggers or risk factors. It is likely that environmental conditions interact with genetic factors to determine the overall risk of developing this disorder.

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