Lauren Miller Rogen on Alzheimer’s Caregivers

In an interview with WebMD, actress and Alzheimer’s disease advocate Lauren Miller Rogen praises the work of Alzheimer’s patient caregivers.

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What They Don’t Tell You About Breast Implants

Want a bigger cup size? Are breast implants right for you? Here are a few facts that no one tells you.

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X-linked infantile spinal muscular atrophy – Genetics Home Reference

 

X-linked infantile spinal muscular atrophy is a condition that affects only boys and is characterized by severe muscle weakness and absent reflexes (areflexia). Affected children often have multiple joint deformities (contractures) from birth that cause joint stiffness (arthrogryposis) and impair movement. In severe cases, affected infants are born with broken bones. The muscle weakness worsens over time; affected children reach some early motor developmental milestones, such as sitting unassisted, but these skills are often lost (developmental regression).

Additional features of X-linked infantile spinal muscular atrophy include an unusually small chin (micrognathia), abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis or kyphosis), and undescended testes (cryptorchidism).

Weakness of the chest muscles used for breathing often leads to life-threatening breathing problems. Children with X-linked infantile spinal muscular atrophy usually do not survive past early childhood due to respiratory failure, although, in rare cases, affected individuals can survive into adolescence.

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How to Take Your Baby’s Temperature

Find out which thermometer you should use to take your baby’s temperature (it depends on your little one’s age) and how to correctly use each type.

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Systemic mastocytosis – Genetics Home Reference

 

Systemic mastocytosis is a blood disorder that can affect many different body systems. Individuals with the condition can develop signs and symptoms at any age, but it usually appears after adolescence.

Signs and symptoms of systemic mastocytosis often include extreme tiredness (fatigue), skin redness and warmth (flushing), nausea, abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, the backflow of stomach acids into the esophagus (), nasal congestion, shortness of breath, low blood pressure (hypotension), lightheadedness, and headache. Some affected individuals have attention or memory problems, anxiety, or depression. Many individuals with systemic mastocytosis develop a skin condition called urticaria pigmentosa, which is characterized by raised patches of brownish skin that sting or itch with contact or changes in temperature. Nearly half of individuals with systemic mastocytosis will experience severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis).

There are five subtypes of systemic mastocytosis, which are differentiated by their severity and the signs and symptoms. The mildest forms of systemic mastocytosis are the indolent and smoldering types. Individuals with these types tend to have only the general signs and symptoms of systemic mastocytosis described above. Individuals with smoldering mastocytosis may have more organs affected and more severe features than those with indolent mastocytosis. The indolent type is the most common type of systemic mastocytosis.

The severe types include aggressive systemic mastocytosis, systemic mastocytosis with an associated hematologic neoplasm, and mast cell leukemia. These types are associated with a reduced life span, which varies among the types and affected individuals. In addition to the general signs and symptoms of systemic mastocytosis, these types typically involve impaired function of an organ, such as the , . The organ dysfunction can result in an abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity (ascites). Aggressive systemic mastocytosis is associated with a loss of bone tissue (osteoporosis and osteopenia) and multiple bone fractures. Systemic mastocytosis with an associated hematologic neoplasm and mast cell leukemia both involve blood cell disorders or blood cell cancer (). Mast cell leukemia is the rarest and most severe type of systemic mastocytosis.

Individuals with the milder forms of the condition generally have a normal or near normal life expectancy, while those with the more severe forms typically survive months or a few years after diagnosis.

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WebMD Town Hall with Michelle Obama: Simple Tips for Healthy Families

From the WebMD Archives: WebMD holds a town hall event with first lady Michelle Obama and a panel of experts to answer questions about how to make healthy changes for your family.

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How to Check Your Heart Rate

Press through these steps and learn to monitor your pulse.

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Symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia

People with Lewy body dementia (LBD) may not have every LBD symptom, and the severity of symptoms can vary greatly from person to person. Throughout the course of the disease, any sudden or major change in functional ability or behavior should be reported to a doctor.Older man in a wheelchair with his wife

The most common symptoms include changes in cognition, movement, sleep, and behavior.

Cognitive Symptoms

LBD causes changes in thinking abilities. These changes may include:

  • Dementia—Severe loss of thinking abilities that interferes with a person’s capacity to perform daily activities. Dementia is a primary symptom in LBD and usually includes trouble with attention, visual and spatial abilities (judging distance and depth or misidentifying objects), planning, multitasking, problem solving, and reasoning. Unlike in Alzheimer’s dementia, memory problems may not be evident at first but often arise as LBD progresses. Dementia can also include changes in mood and behavior, poor judgment, loss of initiative, confusion about time and place, and difficulty with language and numbers.
  • Cognitive fluctuations—Unpredictable changes in concentration, attention, alertness, and wakefulness from day to day and sometimes throughout the day. A person with LBD may stare into space for periods of time, seem drowsy and lethargic, or sleep for several hours during the day despite getting enough sleep the night before. His or her flow of ideas may be disorganized, unclear, or illogical at times. The person may seem better one day, then worse the next day. These cognitive fluctuations are common in LBD and may help distinguish it from Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Hallucinations—Visual hallucinations—seeing things that are not present—occur in up to 80 percent of people with LBD, often early on. They are typically realistic and detailed, such as images of children or animals. Nonvisual hallucinations, such as hearing or smelling things that are not present, are less common than visual ones but may also occur. Hallucinations that are not disruptive may not require treatment. However, if they are frightening or dangerous (for example, if the person attempts to fight a perceived intruder), then a doctor may prescribe medication.

Main Characteristics of Lewy Body Dementia

Core Clinical Symptoms

  • Dementia
  • Movement problems/parkinsonism
  • Cognitive fluctuations
  • Visual hallucinations
  • REM sleep behavior disorder

Supportive Clinical Symptoms

  • Extreme sensitivity to antipsychotic medications
  • Falls, fainting
  • Severe problems with involuntary functions (maintaining blood pressure, incontinence, constipation, loss of smell)
  • Changes in personality and mood (depression, apathy, anxiety)

Test Results Supporting Diagnosis

  • PET or SPECT brain scan showing reduced dopamine transporter (DaT) uptake in basal ganglia (brain region)
  • Abnormal 123iodine-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy showing reduced communication of cardiac nerves
  • Sleep study confirming REM sleep behavior disorder without loss of muscle tone

For more information visit the Lewy Body Dementia Association’s Comprehensive LBD Symptoms Checklist.

Movement Symptoms

Some people with LBD may not experience significant movement problems for several years. Others may have them early on. At first, movement symptoms, such as a change in handwriting, may be very mild and easily overlooked. Parkinsonism is seen early on in Parkinson’s disease dementia but can also develop later on in dementia with Lewy bodies. Specific signs of parkinsonism may include:

  • Muscle rigidity or stiffness
  • Shuffling walk, slow movement, or frozen stance
  • Tremor or shaking, most commonly at rest
  • Balance problems and repeated falls
  • Stooped posture
  • Loss of coordination
  • Smaller handwriting than was usual for the person
  • Reduced facial expression
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • A weak voice

Sleep Disorders

Sleep disorders are common in people with LBD but are often undiagnosed. A sleep specialist can help diagnose and treat sleep disorders. Sleep-related disorders seen in people with LBD may include:

  • REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD)—A condition in which a person seems to act out dreams. It may include vivid dreaming, talking in one’s sleep, violent movements, or falling out of bed. RBD may be the earliest symptom of LBD in some people, appearing many years before other LBD symptoms.
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness—Sleeping 2 or more hours during the day.
  • Insomnia—Difficulty falling or staying asleep, or waking up too early.
  • Restless leg syndrome—A condition in which a person, while resting, feels the urge to move his or her legs to stop unpleasant or unusual sensations. Walking or moving usually relieves the discomfort.

Behavioral and Mood Symptoms

Changes in behavior and mood are possible in LBD and may worsen as cognition declines. These changes may include:

  • Depression—A persistent feeling of sadness, worthlessness, or inability to enjoy activities, often with trouble with sleeping or eating.
  • Apathy—A lack of interest in normal daily activities or events; less social interaction.
  • Anxiety—Intense apprehension, uncertainty, or fear about a future event or situation. A person may ask the same questions over and over or be angry or fearful when a loved one is not present.
  • Agitation—Restlessness, as seen by pacing, hand wringing, an inability to get settled, constant repeating of words or phrases, or irritability.
  • Delusions—Strongly held false beliefs or opinions not based on evidence. For example, a person may think his or her spouse is having an affair or that relatives long dead are still living. Capgras syndrome, in which the person believes a relative or friend has been replaced by an imposter, may also appear.
  • Paranoia—An extreme, irrational distrust of others, such as suspicion that people are taking or hiding things.

Other LBD Symptoms

People with LBD can also experience significant changes in the part of the nervous system that regulates automatic functions such as those of the heart, glands, and muscles. The person may have:

For More Information About Symptoms of LBD

NIA Alzheimer’s and related Dementias Education and Referral (ADEAR) Center
1-800-438-4380 (toll-free)
adear@nia.nih.gov
www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers
The National Institute on Aging’s ADEAR Center offers information and free print publications about Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias for families, caregivers, and health professionals. ADEAR Center staff answer telephone, email, and written requests and make referrals to local and national resources.

Lewy Body Dementia Association
1-404-975-2322
1-844-311-0587 (toll-free LBD Caregiver Link)
www.lbda.org

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What Is ‘Sitting Disease’?

Sitting for long hours is linked to a whole lot of health problems. It’s even been referred to as “sitting disease.” There are things you can do break up the time you spend sitting. Here’s how to take a stand for your health.

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