How is Lack of Sleep Ruining Your Health?

I used to say, “I will sleep when I am dead.”  That’s Old military humor meant as some form of motivation in those days we would go for an eternity without sleep.  What I did not know was that not sleeping can draw us closer to death every day.

Ongoing surveys indicate more people are sleeping less than six hours a night, and sleep difficulties visit 75% of us at least a few nights per week. A short-lived bout of insomnia is generally nothing to worry about. The bigger concern is chronic sleep loss, which can contribute to health problems such as weight gain, high blood pressure, and a weakening in the immune system – all which can cause even greater problems down the road.

Why Is Sleep Important?

Sleep plays a vital role in good health and well-being throughout your life. Getting enough quality sleep at the right times can help protect your mental health, physical health, quality of life, and safety.

The way you feel while you’re awake depends in part on what happens while you’re sleeping. During sleep, your body is working to support healthy brain function and maintain your physical health. In children and teens, sleep also helps support growth and development.

Think of your body like a factory that performs a number of vital functions. As you drift off to sleep, your body begins its night-shift work:

  • Healing damaged cells
  • Boosting your immune system
  • Recovering from the day’s activities
  • Recharging your heart and cardiovascular system for the next day

Understanding the sleep cycle

Understanding what happens during sleep also means understanding the sleep cycle, which consists of  two recurring phases: REM (rapid eye movement) and NREM (non-REM or non-rapid eye movement). Both phases are important for different functions in our bodies.

NREM sleep typically occupies 75–80% of total sleep each night. Many of the health benefits of sleep take place during NREM sleep – tissue growth and repair occurs, energy is restored and hormones that are essential for growth and development are released.

REM sleep typically occupies 20–25% of total sleep each night. REM sleep, when dreaming occurs, is essential to our minds for processing and consolidating emotions, memories and stress. It is also thought to be vital for learning, stimulating the brain regions used in practicing and developing new skills.

If the REM and NREM cycles are interrupted multiple times throughout the night — either due to snoring, difficulties breathing or waking up frequently —we miss out on vital body processes.  This can affect our health and well-being the next day and long term.

What happens if you don’t get enough sleep?

If your body doesn’t get a chance to properly recharge – by cycling through REM and NREM – you’re already starting the next day at a disadvantage. You might find yourself:

  • Feeling drowsy, irritable or sometimes depressed
  • Struggling to take in new information at work, remembering things or making decisions
  • Craving more unhealthy foods, which could cause weight gain1

We have all heard about the importance of sleeping well, and we’ve all experienced the feeling of being refreshed after a good night’s sleep, or the feeling of fatigue after a poor night’s sleep. Even though we know this, in our busy society, many of us are not getting the quality sleep needed to truly receive its health benefits.

Here are a few reasons to catch more ZZZZs.

Healthy Brain Function and Emotional Well-Being

Sleep helps your brain work properly. While you’re sleeping, your brain is preparing for the next day. It’s forming new pathways to help you learn and remember information.

Studies show that a good night’s sleep improves learning. Whether you’re learning math, how to play the piano, how to perfect your golf swing, or how to drive a car, sleep helps enhance your learning and problem-solving skills. Sleep also helps you pay attention, make decisions, and be creative.

Studies also show that sleep deficiency alters activity in some parts of the brain. If you’re sleep deficient, you may have trouble making decisions, solving problems, controlling your emotions and behavior, and coping with change. Sleep deficiency also has been linked to depression, suicide, and risk-taking behavior.

Children and teens who are sleep deficient may have problems getting along with others. They may feel angry and impulsive, have mood swings, feel sad or depressed, or lack motivation. They also may have problems paying attention, and they may get lower grades and feel stressed.

Physical Health

Sleep plays a significant role in your physical health. For example, sleep is involved in healing and repair of your heart and blood vessels. Ongoing sleep deficiency is linked to an increased risk of heart disease, kidney disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and stroke.

Sleep deficiency also increases the risk of obesity. For example, one study of teenagers showed that with each hour of sleep lost, the odds of becoming obese went up. Sleep deficiency increases the risk of obesity in other age groups as well.

Sleep helps maintain a healthy balance of the hormones that make you feel hungry (ghrelin) or full (leptin). When you don’t get enough sleep, your level of ghrelin goes up and your level of leptin goes down. This makes you feel hungrier than when you’re well-rested.

Sleep also affects how your body reacts to insulin, the hormone that controls your blood glucose (sugar) level. Sleep deficiency results in a higher than normal blood sugar level, which may increase your risk for diabetes.

Sleep also supports healthy growth and development. Deep sleep triggers the body to release the hormone that promotes normal growth in children and teens. This hormone also boosts muscle mass and helps repair cells and tissues in children, teens, and adults. Sleep also plays a role in puberty and fertility.

Your immune system relies on sleep to stay healthy. This system defends your body against foreign or harmful substances. Ongoing sleep deficiency can change the way in which your immune system responds. For example, if you’re sleep deficient, you may have trouble fighting common infections.

Daytime Performance and Safety

Getting enough quality sleep at the right times helps you function well throughout the day. People who are sleep deficient are less productive at work and school. They take longer to finish tasks, have a slower reaction time, and make more mistakes.

After several nights of losing sleep—even a loss of just 1–2 hours per night—your ability to function suffers as if you haven’t slept at all for a day or two.

Lack of sleep also may lead to microsleep. Microsleep refers to brief moments of sleep that occur when you’re normally awake.

You can’t control microsleep, and you might not be aware of it. For example, have you ever driven somewhere and then not remembered part of the trip? If so, you may have experienced microsleep.

Even if you’re not driving, microsleep can affect how you function. If you’re listening to a lecture, for example, you might miss some of the information or feel like you don’t understand the point. In reality, though, you may have slept through part of the lecture and not been aware of it.

Some people aren’t aware of the risks of sleep deficiency. In fact, they may not even realize that they’re sleep deficient. Even with limited or poor-quality sleep, they may still think that they can function well.

Drowsy drivers may feel capable of driving. Yet, studies show that sleep deficiency harms your driving ability as much as, or more than, being drunk. It’s estimated that driver sleepiness is a factor in about 100,000 car accidents each year, resulting in about 1,500 deaths.

Drivers aren’t the only ones affected by sleep deficiency. It can affect people in all lines of work, including health care workers, pilots, students, lawyers, mechanics, and assembly line workers.

As a result, sleep deficiency is not only harmful on a personal level, but it also can cause large-scale damage. For example, sleep deficiency has played a role in human errors linked to tragic accidents, such as nuclear reactor meltdowns, grounding of large ships, and aviation accidents

Get help

If you are shorting your sleep night after night, it places a tremendous strain on your nervous system, body and overall health. Damage from sleep deficiency can occur in an instant (such as a car crash), or it can harm you over time. For example, ongoing sleep deficiency can raise your risk for some chronic health problems. It also can affect how well you think, react, work, learn, and get along with others.

So, if you’re not sleeping well or aren’t feeling rested when you wake up in the morning, it’s important to talk to your doctor and ask if a sleep study is right for you.  To find a healthcare provider who is practiced in helping you get a good night’s rest, go to HealthLynked.com.  In our first of its kind healthcare ecosystem, you will find physicians and advice to help you stop counting sheep!

Sign up for Free and start taking control of your health today!

 

Cardiac Amyloidosis: What Every Cardiologist Needs to Know – Mayo Clinic CV Grand Rounds

In this Mayo Clinic Grand Rounds video originally presented on December 14, 2012, cardiologist Martha Grogan, MD, discusses “Cardiac Amyloidosis: What Every Cardiologist Needs to Know.”

To view a full list of Mayo Clinic Grand Round videos, visit:
► http://www.mayoclinic.org/grand-round…

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Preparing for Menopause | NIH News in Health

A Woman’s Midlife Change

During midlife, a woman’s menstrual periods grow further and further apart. At some point, they stop completely, and she can no longer get pregnant.

This is because the ovaries aren’t releasing eggs and making hormonesSubstances sent through the bloodstream to signal another part of the body to grow or react a certain way. like estrogen anymore. After 12 months without a period, a woman can say she’s gone through menopause.

In the years before menopause, women may experience skipped and unpredictable menstrual periods. This phase is called the midlife transition, perimenopause, or the change of life. Some women go through the transition faster than others. It lasts between 1 and 10 years.

Midlife Transition

Typically, menopause occurs between ages 45 and 55. This means women can expect less frequent periods and other symptoms at some point during their 40s. But it’s different for every woman. There’s no lab test to predict when in life it will start or how easy it will be.

Along with unpredictable periods, a woman may have other symptoms—both physical and emotional. Hot flashes, poor sleep, and mood changes are common. Some women have vaginal dryness, weight gain, and thinning hair. Bone density may also start to decrease.

“Most people don’t have severe symptoms. Most people have mild or less frequent symptoms,” says Dr. Hadine Joffe, an NIH-supported menopause researcher and psychiatrist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital.

NIH is funding studies looking into how to relieve menopause symptoms. There are medicines and lifestyle changes that can help.

“No two people are going to go through menopause in exactly the same way,” explains Dr. Chhanda Dutta, who oversees clinical aging research at NIH. “Different women go through menopause with different kinds of symptoms, and we’re trying to give them options for how they can manage them.”

Waves of Heat

Hot flashes are a common symptom during the midlife transition. Many women have these for several years after menopause. Some experience hot flashes for 10 or more years.

A mild hot flash feels like being embarrassed, Joffe says. “There’s a wave of heat sensation that rises to your head and chest, and sometimes you look red, feel hot, and then it’s gone.”

A not-so-mild hot flash can make your skin appear very red. Your head, neck, and chest may become hot and sweaty.

“It’s particularly disruptive at night,” Joffe says. “People are waking up, feeling very hot and sweaty, and they have weird, disrupted sleep.”

NIH-supported studies have found some medicines that reduce hot flashes. The most effective FDA-approved treatment is low-dose hormone therapy. Some women are given estrogen or estrogen with another hormone, progestin. Women take hormone therapy for the shortest time that they need it.

Not every woman can take hormone therapy. Another option is an antidepressant that is FDA-approved for treating moderate to severe hot flashes.

A doctor can help determine which medicine might work best. See the Wise Choices box for other ways to outsmart hot flashes.

Restless Nights

During midlife, women may start having trouble sleeping because of changes in hormone levels. Hot flashes and night sweats can also cause women to wake up.

“In people who have hot flashes at night, their sleep is disrupted throughout the entire night. It’s like a ripple of a sleep irritation throughout the whole night,” Joffe says. A woman may feel tired the next day as a result.

The medicines that help with hot flashes may also help ease sleep issues. But other things can help, too.

If a hot flash or anything else wakes you up, avoid looking at a clock. “It’s much easier to fall back to sleep if you don’t know what time it is,” Joffe advises.

She also says to avoid tossing and turning. If you wake up, get out of bed briefly to read and then get back into bed to go back to sleep.

Exercise can also help women sleep better at night. It’s best to avoid caffeine and alcohol for several hours before bedtime, too. Both can disrupt sleep.

For women who have a hard time falling asleep, relaxation breathing can help. Slowly breathe in through your nose. With a hand below your ribs, feel your stomach push your hand out. Slowly exhale through your mouth. You can do this for several minutes to relax.

Rollercoaster Moods

During perimenopause, many women become irritable or feel moody. Some may feel sad and anxious and unable to enjoy things as much as they used to.

If a woman has these symptoms day after day for at least 2 weeks, she may be dealing with a clinical depression. “There is a two- to three-fold risk of depression during perimenopause,” says NIH psychiatrist and researcher Dr. Peter J. Schmidt.

Although most women don’t have a problem with depression during this transition, he explains, changes in hormones can bring a negative mood for some women. Researchers are studying how to counteract the effects of shifting hormone levels.

Schmidt and his colleagues found that women who were at risk of depression and taking estrogen therapy were less likely to become depressed during perimenopause. The medicine prevented dips in estrogen and seemed to prevent mood plunges as well.

“If you think you’re at a higher risk of depression, you should proactively touch base with your doctor, says Schmidt. “Talk about what kind of symptoms you should be looking for and be concerned about as you age.”

He advises that you set up a plan for how to look for symptoms of depression. That way, you can enter midlife prepared to act. Schmidt encourages anyone who has a depressed mood to seek help from a primary care doctor or mental health professional.

Midlife Well-Being

The midlife transition is a phase of life that brings gradual changes. Many women don’t have problems during this transition.

You can make midlife your time for optimizing well-being by eating well, exercising, and getting quality sleep. The healthier you are at midlife, the more successful you’ll be combating age-related changes and diseases.

“We see it almost like a window of opportunity where people want to be entering midlife as healthy as possible,” Joffe says. “It’s really important for people to do the right thing now. And protect their health over time.”

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Food Additives 101

What’s really in your food? Not everything that’s added to your food is regulated by the FDA. Why not? Well, there’s a loophole. Some additives are privately tested and deemed “generally recognized as safe” outside of FDA review. For more, see our extensive report on food additives: http://wb.md/1OO5NA9

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Dr. Sletten Discussing Central Sensitization Syndrome (CSS)

Mayo Clinic’s Christopher Sletten, Ph.D., ABPP discussing Central Sensitization Syndrome, which is the prevailing theory of the cause of chronic pain & other chronic symptoms. A patient and/or provider understanding of this process can lead to seeking appropriate treatments including the Pain Rehab Center (PRC) at Mayo Clinic’s Florida campus.

Learn more about the PRC program in Florida: http://mayocl.in/prcfl

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Is Workaholism Destroying Your Health and Your Career?

Our society is obsessed with the concept we all must be the best at what we do, and overworking or becoming a ‘workaholic’ sometimes seem the best means to achieving that goal. While researchers and psychologists have been arguing for decades about what constitutes “workaholism” and whether it is a disorder at all, the term started being thrown around in the 1970s.  Since then, mountains of evidence have piled up showing workaholics display many of the same characteristics as those addicted to drugs or alcohol, such as engaging in compulsive behaviors that are ultimately destructive.

Today, there are more ways to overwork yourself than ever, and few leaders will discourage it.  Surveys  consistently show at least one-third of Americans are chronically overworked. According to the current OECD Better Life Index, the United States ranks 30 out of 38 advanced nations in the category of “work-life balance”.  While refusing vacation time, eating lunch at your desk or never shutting off your work email might seem like smart ways to impress the boss, they also could have dire consequences for your health down the road.

The research is pretty cut and dry when it comes to the effects of workaholism on mental health. 32.7 percent of workaholics met ADHD criteria, compared to 12.7 percent of non-workaholics. 25.6 percent of workaholics met OCD criteria, compared to 8.7 percent of non-workaholics. 33.8 percent of workaholics met anxiety criteria, compared to 11.9 percent of non-workaholics. And 8.9 percent of workaholics met depression criteria, compared to 2.6 percent of non-workaholics.

Consider two more facts:

  • People who work eleven hours per day rather than eight have a 67% increased risk of developing heart disease.
  • Those who work more than 50 hours per week are three times more likely to develop an alcohol-abuse problem.

Those are some pretty damning numbers.   The problem is, workaholism is the rare mental health issue that can often have positive rewards in the short term — things like the praise of a happy boss or increased income. For these reasons, psychologist Bryan Robinson once called workaholism “the best-dressed mental health problem.”

So, if you’re trying to wean yourself off your work addiction but are just having a little difficulty, here are some things to keep in mind.

Not taking vacations hurts your career.

Almost three-quarters of American workers don’t use all their vacation time and less than half take the time to plan out their vacations each year, according to Project: Time Off –  sponsored by the U.S. Travel Association. As a result, they end up burning valuable time.

By forfeiting 658 million unused vacation days, workers cost the US economy an estimated $223 billion in total economic impact and 1.6 million jobs. That makes ditching vacation both one of the most costly and common ways Americans overwork themselves.

Workers that don’t take vacation were also found to be less productive and score lower on performance reviews.

According to a new study published in the Journal of Management, there is a significant difference between being engaged at work and being addicted to it. While the former is characterized by hard work because the employee is passionate about the job, the latter is often motivated by negative feelings like guilt, fear and compulsion.

Your brain needs breaks.

So, you are totally engaged, but do you leave time to take a much needed break or two during the day? Giving your brain some down time is essential to increasing productivity. A recent study found that the ideal work-to-break ratio should be 52 minutes of work followed by a 17-minute break.

The study is backed up by several others that have found giving your brain some time to relax and day dream increases productivity, problem-solving and creativity.

Eating lunch at your desk is bad for you.

For one, a lunch break is a perfect time to recharge your gray matter.  Also, the physical activity of getting up and away from your desk can help   improve productivity and stave off obesity.  A U.K. study found that people who ate more meals at work were more likely to be overweight.

What’s more, experts agree that grabbing lunch with co-workers and clients can be a great way to network and further your career.  It is also important to note skipping lunch altogether is maybe the worst thing you can do.

Constantly checking email wastes your life.

No matter what you tell yourself, constantly being on your work email isn’t helping your state of mind or your productivity. A 2012 study found  when workers were forced to take a five-day break from work email they  experienced less stress and became more efficient at completing work tasks. The hiatus even led to workers having “more natural, variable heart rates.”

Workers who answer emails late in to the evening were also more likely to be exhausted the next day and hence less engaged, two 2014 studies found.

You’re probably hurting your relationship.

Being addicted to work can cause serious rifts between partners in romantic relationships. Since workaholism can be thought of as being similar to substance addiction, workaholics often prioritize their job over their friends and family. For example, those addicted to work can leave a disproportionate amount of domestic duties to spouses who have a more balanced approach to their careers.

Marriages involving a workaholic are twice as likely to end in divorce, a 1999 study found. For those that stay together, the psychological damage can be considerable. Kids of workaholics have been found to experience greater levels of depression and anxiety than the children of alcoholics.

You can’t keep it up forever.

In short, workaholics burn out. What may begin as simply spending a few extra hours at the office every week can quickly spiral into much more destructive behavior because workaholics don’t take the time to give themselves a break, CNNMoney reports. All that nonstop activity can result in bad personal habits and ultimately lead to what one expert called “incapacitating ‘burnout.’”  What’s more, studies have shown that limiting workers to a 40-hour week is the best way to maintain long-term productivity.

It’s bad for your co-workers and employers.

Having workers who take on too much stress, as workaholics often do, isn’t just bad for the employee — it’s bad for companies and co-workers, too. Businesses lose an estimated $300 billion in productivity due to stress each year, according to the World Health Organization.

But that stress can also have collateral damage on co-workers. Since workaholics tend to be perfectionists, they can often put added , often unnecessary stress on their colleagues, according to experts.

And even worse for you.

In short, workaholism has been linked with a laundry list of disorders, including alcoholismsleep problems, heart disease, depression and anxiety, weight gainhigh blood pressure and even premature death.

Here are a few tips you can implement to begin a much healthier relationship with your work:

Make Relaxation Part of Your Day

Learning to work smarter, not longer, will increase productivity and help to eliminate the potential disastrous results from being overworked. Take a break for a few minutes at a time each day and relax periodically. You should relax by physically slowing down. Take deeper breaths, drink more water, take a walk outside. All of these things will help you to relax your body and your mind and will make you more productive.

Condense Your Workload

Give yourself a set amount of time to work each day and each week; then stick to it. You’ll find yourself becoming more productive during the time you actually work, because you have to get your stuff done faster. To help you stick with your new schedule, set appointments for 30 minutes after you’re supposed to be done. So, if you tell yourself you’re absolutely going to stop working at 5 p.m., set an appointment for 5:30 p.m. and stick to it. Make it a barber or beauty shop, or an appointment with your spouse or kids or workout partner. Whatever you do, stick to it.

Have Set Email and Social Media Times

Don’t allow yourself to be available to the world every minute of the day. Set times when you will check and respond to email. You really don’t need to be connected all the time. Now, take the time that you save from responding to email, and claim it by reducing your work hours. Also, now that you’re not being interrupted all the time, you can focus more.

Don’t Skip the Vacation

Taking the occasional vacation for a few days at a time can help you physically and emotionally recharge. If you can’t afford your dream vacation, more affordable mini vacations or stay-cations can be the answer. Take a day off to go hiking or sightseeing. Visit a relative within driving distance for the weekend. Pretend you’re a tourist in your own city and visit some attractions. Take the family camping.

Whatever your vacation idea, schedule it on your calendar and plan for it in advance. The payoff is greater balance between your personal and professional lives as well as delivering the emotional lift of something to look forward to. Your business will survive without you, so leave the laptop at home.

To avoid becoming one of the statistics from above, there are resources available for those who feel they may be losing the ability to balance their personal and work lives.   For example, Workaholics Anonymous is a 12-step program based on the one designed for recovering alcoholics. It’s just one of many ways people can learn to set clear boundaries between the office and the home, according to CNNMoney.

Finally, if you are looking for a health professional who might help you find a really great work life balance, you can find them using HealthLynked. It is the first of its kind medical network built as a social ecosystem with a Higher Purpose – Improving HealthCareGo to HealthLynked.com to sing up for free and find our additional resources on mental health information.

 

Why Being A Workaholic Is Awful For You AND Everyone Around You, Harry Bradford, Huffington Post

Being a Workaholic is Bad For Your Health, Scott And Heidi Shimberg, 28 May 2015

 

Eating Well May Slow Hearing Loss in Women

 

July 2018

Many people lose some of their hearing as they get older. Experts say that, of those over the age of 75, about half have hearing loss. Not being able to hear well can make it hard to communicate. That can affect relationships with loved ones, friends, and coworkers.

A new study shows that women who have a pattern of healthy eating have a lower risk of hearing loss than women who don’t eat well. A healthy eating pattern includes lots of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains. It limits sugar, salt, and animal fat.

The study took place between 1991 and 2013. Women taking part in the study were all professional nurses. Every 4 years, the researchers asked the women to recall what they had eaten over the past year. About 71,000 women responded to the questionnaires.

The research team also asked the women whether they had noticed a hearing problem. During the study, more than 2,000 women said they had developed moderate or worse hearing loss.

The team used the reports of food intake to group the women by diet patterns. They compared women with the healthiest pattern to those with the least healthy pattern. The women with the healthiest diet pattern were less likely to have a hearing problem.

“Interestingly, we observed that those following an overall healthy diet had a lower risk of moderate or worse hearing loss,” says researcher Dr. Sharon G. Curhan at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. “Eating well contributes to overall good health, and it may also be helpful in reducing the risk of hearing loss.”

Because the study included only women, more research is needed to see whether the results also apply to men.

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Living with Lewy Body Dementia

It happened little by little. First he would forget things, then he’d lose track of what he was doing. Lewy Body dementia took over the life of the man you’re about to meet. The disease is the second most common form of dementia, Alzheimer’s being the first. There is no cure, but experts at Mayo Clinic are researching Lewy Body disease in hopes of improving the lives of people who struggle with it. To learn more, visit http://mayocl.in/2A0tu8i

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Acne Breakouts | NIH News in Health

 

July 2018

Controlling Problem Pimples

Zits. Pimples. Spots. Whatever you call it, acne can cause discomfort and embarrassment. This skin condition affects most people at some point during their lives. About 4 out of every 5 people experience acne outbreaks between the ages of 11 and 30.

Acne starts in the skin’s oil glands. The hair on our bodies comes out through canals from these glands called follicles. Oil glands make oils that emerge to the skin’s surface through the follicles’ openings, or pores, along with the hairs.

Sometimes hair, oil, and dead skin cells come together to plug a follicle. The plugged pore provides the right conditions for bacteria that normally live on the skin to thrive. When the body’s immune systemThe system that protects your body from invading viruses, bacteria, and other microscopic threats. attacks the bacteria, pain and swelling can result. That’s how a pimple forms.

Doctors don’t know why only some people get acne. They do know what raises the risk for acne. Increases in certain hormonesSubstances sent through the bloodstream to signal another part of the body to grow or react a certain way. can cause oil glands to get bigger and make more oil. These hormone levels go up during puberty. Because of this, acne is most common in adolescents and young adults. Hormone changes caused by pregnancy or by starting or stopping birth control pills can also trigger acne.

But people of all ages can get acne. For most, acne goes away by the time they reach their 30s. However, some people in their 30s, 40s, and 50s still get acne. Although acne is usually not a serious health threat, it can be upsetting, and severe acne can lead to permanent scarring.

There are things you can do to prevent acne, explains Dr. Edward Cowen, a skin specialist at NIH. He recommends that people with acne avoid skin products that contain petrolatum, a type of oil. Instead, he says, look for creams and lotions labeled “noncomedogenic.” These are less likely to clog pores. A lot of people think certain foods can cause acne breakouts. However, Cowen explains, research has not been able to confirm this in most cases. See the Wise Choices box for other tips.

While there are plenty of home remedies for acne, Cowen says, it’s better to start with proven over-the-counter treatments for mild acne. These products can contain benzoyl peroxide, resorcinol, salicylic acid, or sulfur.

People with severe acne should discuss prescription drug options with a doctor, he adds. These include antibiotics to kill bacteria or drugs called retinoids, which can be given as a topical to apply to the skin or as an oral medication.

NIH-funded scientists are conducting research to better understand why acne develops and to find better ways to treat the condition.

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Deep Brain Stimulation – Awake Surgery – Mayo Clinic

Kendall Lee, M.D., describes deep brain stimulation surgery, and how it is is typically done with patients who remain awake, so neurological functions can be measured and maintained. For more information on deep brain stimulation, visit http://mayocl.in/2A09T80.

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‘Can I Have Sex?’ Top Pregnancy Dos and Don’ts – First Trimester

Can you get flu shots while pregnant? Fly on airplanes? Dye your hair?

Download the WebMD Pregnancy App here: http://taps.io/BqZ2Q

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Microcephaly, seizures, and developmental delay – Genetics Home Reference

 

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  • Poulton C, Oegema R, Heijsman D, Hoogeboom J, Schot R, Stroink H, Willemsen MA, Verheijen FW, van de Spek P, Kremer A, Mancini GM. Progressive cerebellar atrophy and polyneuropathy: expanding the spectrum of PNKP mutations. Neurogenetics. 2013 Feb;14(1):43-51. doi: 10.1007/s10048-012-0351-8. Epub 2012 Dec 9.
  • Reynolds JJ, Walker AK, Gilmore EC, Walsh CA, Caldecott KW. Impact of PNKP mutations associated with microcephaly, seizures and developmental delay on enzyme activity and DNA strand break repair. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012 Aug;40(14):6608-19. doi: 10.1093/nar/gks318. Epub 2012 Apr 15.
  • Shen J, Gilmore EC, Marshall CA, Haddadin M, Reynolds JJ, Eyaid W, Bodell A, Barry B, Gleason D, Allen K, Ganesh VS, Chang BS, Grix A, Hill RS, Topcu M, Caldecott KW, Barkovich AJ, Walsh CA. Mutations in PNKP cause microcephaly, seizures and defects in DNA repair. Nat Genet. 2010 Mar;42(3):245-9. doi: 10.1038/ng.526. Epub 2010 Jan 31.
  • Shimada M, Dumitrache LC, Russell HR, McKinnon PJ. Polynucleotide kinase-phosphatase enables neurogenesis via multiple DNA repair pathways to maintain genome stability. EMBO J. 2015 Oct 1;34(19):2465-80. doi: 10.15252/embj.201591363. Epub 2015 Aug 19.
  • Weinfeld M, Mani RS, Abdou I, Aceytuno RD, Glover JN. Tidying up loose ends: the role of polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase in DNA strand break repair. Trends Biochem Sci. 2011 May;36(5):262-71. doi: 10.1016/j.tibs.2011.01.006. Epub 2011 Feb 25. Review.

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