It took the 911 dispatcher a moment to realize the brother and sister injured in the accident were not in the same car … they had crashed into each other. One was leaving the farm and the other was coming home. Their mom says their survival was nothing short of a miracle.
Women who work 45 hours or more each week may be upping their risk of diabetes, new research finds. Men who work the same number of hours, however, are not affected.
While prior research has suggested a link between a long work week and an increased risk of diabetes, most of these studies focused on men. Interestingly, this recent research seems to find the opposite effect in males: the longer the work week, the lower the incidence of diabetes.
For women who work 45 hours per week or more, though, their risk was considerably higher. When compared with women who work 35–40 hours each week, they had a 63 percent higher risk of developing diabetes.
The authors of the new study, which was published in BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care, looked at data from the 2003 Canadian Community Health survey, which included respondents aged 35–74.
They also looked at the Ontario Health Insurance Plan database for physician services, as well as the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database for hospital admissions.
In all, over 7,000 Canadian employees were included in the research. As well as looking at hours worked, the researchers also included other factors in their analysis, such as: sex, marital status, parenthood, ethnicity, place of birth, place of residence, long-term health conditions, lifestyle, weight, and body mass index (BMI).
They also considered unique workplace factors, such as shift work and the type of job the respondents did — for instance, whether it was predominantly active or sedentary.
Overall, the risk of diabetes was “only slightly reduced” when factors such as smoking and alcohol levels were considered.
While the researchers could not establish a definitive cause and effect from these data, they note that encouraging women to work fewer hours may be a key component of reducing the number of diabetes cases.
The shape of diabetes
Diabetes is a widespread issue around the world and impacts many lives. When someone has diabetes, their body does not utilize insulin properly; the pancreas increases production of the hormone until it can no longer keep up with the body’s demands.
This leads to higher-than-normal blood glucose levels and can eventually cause a wide range of problems throughout the body.
The American Diabetes Association say that over 30 million people in the United States have diabetes, and 7 million of these individuals are unaware of it.
Diabetes remains the seventh leading cause of death in the U.S., and, each year, doctors discover 1.5 million new cases. Worldwide, this number jumps to 425 million adults, with half remaining undiagnosed.
Diabetes prevention and management, then, are an essential facet of public health. Studies such as this one can help doctors to create guidelines that can positively impact the health of their patients and lead to fewer cases of diabetes down the road.
Limitations and next steps
Although the records used in this study did not distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, it is estimated that type 1 diabetes accounts for around 5 percent of cases among those aged 18 or over, so most of these cases were likely to be type 2.
In the future, if further studies agree with these findings, healthcare providers may recommend that women work 40 hours per week or under.
The study authors write, “Considering the rapid and substantial increase of diabetes prevalence…worldwide, identifying modifiable risk factors such as long work hours is of major importance to improve prevention and orient policy making, as it could prevent numerous cases of diabetes and diabetes-related chronic diseases.”
Ifworking long hours is causing you to feel poorly, consider talking to a physician. You can quickly find and connect with one in the largest ever healthcare ecosystem designed to vastly improve the relationship doctors and patients are meant to enjoy and find great value in….
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Beyer, Monica. “Diabetes risk increased in women who work long hours.” Medical News Today. Sunday, 8 July 2018.
Jay Smith, M.D., vice chair of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at Mayo Clinic describes a clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cell injections as a treatment for patients with osteoarthritic knees.
In the three years leading up to Mayo Clinic’s first face transplant procedure, dozens of medical specialists rehearsed the full transplant operation more than 30 times. Here is a detailed look at how they achieved a remarkable transformation with a very complex surgery.
Mayo Clinic’s Robert Orenstein, D.O., and John K. DiBaise, M.D., explain and demonstrate the FMT procedures and techniques.
To request an appointment, visit http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/c-difficile/diagnosis-treatment/request-appointment/ptc-20202448?mc_id=us&utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=sm&utm_content=video&utm_campaign=mayoclinic&geo=national&placementsite=enterprise&cauid=100504
Researchers at Mayo Clinic have found that a mild to moderate reduction in calories effectively prevents and reverses polycystic kidney disease (PKD) in mice. The results appear online today in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology.
“Currently, there is no FDA-approved treatment, and the only thing that can be done is dialysis or renal transplantation,” explains Eduardo Chini, M.D., Ph.D., anesthesiologist and researcher for Mayo Clinic’s Robert and Arlene Kogod Center on Aging and lead author of the study. “We have found that a very simple measure, like decreasing the amount of calories that are taken in, even by only 10 percent, can very significantly decrease the burden of this disease.”
I used to say, “I will sleep when I am dead.” That’s Old military humor meant as some form of motivation in those days we would go for an eternity without sleep. What I did not know was that not sleeping can draw us closer to death every day.
Ongoing surveys indicate more people are sleeping less than six hours a night, and sleep difficulties visit 75% of us at least a few nights per week. A short-lived bout of insomnia is generally nothing to worry about. The bigger concern is chronic sleep loss, which can contribute to health problems such as weight gain, high blood pressure, and a weakening in the immune system – all which can cause even greater problems down the road.
Why Is Sleep Important?
Sleep plays a vital role in good health and well-being throughout your life. Getting enough quality sleep at the right times can help protect your mental health, physical health, quality of life, and safety.
The way you feel while you’re awake depends in part on what happens while you’re sleeping. During sleep, your body is working to support healthy brain function and maintain your physical health. In children and teens, sleep also helps support growth and development.
Think of your body like a factory that performs a number of vital functions. As you drift off to sleep, your body begins its night-shift work:
- Healing damaged cells
- Boosting your immune system
- Recovering from the day’s activities
- Recharging your heart and cardiovascular system for the next day
Understanding the sleep cycle
Understanding what happens during sleep also means understanding the sleep cycle, which consists of two recurring phases: REM (rapid eye movement) and NREM (non-REM or non-rapid eye movement). Both phases are important for different functions in our bodies.
NREM sleep typically occupies 75–80% of total sleep each night. Many of the health benefits of sleep take place during NREM sleep – tissue growth and repair occurs, energy is restored and hormones that are essential for growth and development are released.
REM sleep typically occupies 20–25% of total sleep each night. REM sleep, when dreaming occurs, is essential to our minds for processing and consolidating emotions, memories and stress. It is also thought to be vital for learning, stimulating the brain regions used in practicing and developing new skills.
If the REM and NREM cycles are interrupted multiple times throughout the night — either due to snoring, difficulties breathing or waking up frequently —we miss out on vital body processes. This can affect our health and well-being the next day and long term.
What happens if you don’t get enough sleep?
If your body doesn’t get a chance to properly recharge – by cycling through REM and NREM – you’re already starting the next day at a disadvantage. You might find yourself:
- Feeling drowsy, irritable or sometimes depressed
- Struggling to take in new information at work, remembering things or making decisions
- Craving more unhealthy foods, which could cause weight gain1
We have all heard about the importance of sleeping well, and we’ve all experienced the feeling of being refreshed after a good night’s sleep, or the feeling of fatigue after a poor night’s sleep. Even though we know this, in our busy society, many of us are not getting the quality sleep needed to truly receive its health benefits.
Here are a few reasons to catch more ZZZZs.
Healthy Brain Function and Emotional Well-Being
Sleep helps your brain work properly. While you’re sleeping, your brain is preparing for the next day. It’s forming new pathways to help you learn and remember information.
Studies show that a good night’s sleep improves learning. Whether you’re learning math, how to play the piano, how to perfect your golf swing, or how to drive a car, sleep helps enhance your learning and problem-solving skills. Sleep also helps you pay attention, make decisions, and be creative.
Studies also show that sleep deficiency alters activity in some parts of the brain. If you’re sleep deficient, you may have trouble making decisions, solving problems, controlling your emotions and behavior, and coping with change. Sleep deficiency also has been linked to depression, suicide, and risk-taking behavior.
Children and teens who are sleep deficient may have problems getting along with others. They may feel angry and impulsive, have mood swings, feel sad or depressed, or lack motivation. They also may have problems paying attention, and they may get lower grades and feel stressed.
Sleep plays a significant role in your physical health. For example, sleep is involved in healing and repair of your heart and blood vessels. Ongoing sleep deficiency is linked to an increased risk of heart disease, kidney disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and stroke.
Sleep deficiency also increases the risk of obesity. For example, one study of teenagers showed that with each hour of sleep lost, the odds of becoming obese went up. Sleep deficiency increases the risk of obesity in other age groups as well.
Sleep helps maintain a healthy balance of the hormones that make you feel hungry (ghrelin) or full (leptin). When you don’t get enough sleep, your level of ghrelin goes up and your level of leptin goes down. This makes you feel hungrier than when you’re well-rested.
Sleep also affects how your body reacts to insulin, the hormone that controls your blood glucose (sugar) level. Sleep deficiency results in a higher than normal blood sugar level, which may increase your risk for diabetes.
Sleep also supports healthy growth and development. Deep sleep triggers the body to release the hormone that promotes normal growth in children and teens. This hormone also boosts muscle mass and helps repair cells and tissues in children, teens, and adults. Sleep also plays a role in puberty and fertility.
Your immune system relies on sleep to stay healthy. This system defends your body against foreign or harmful substances. Ongoing sleep deficiency can change the way in which your immune system responds. For example, if you’re sleep deficient, you may have trouble fighting common infections.
Daytime Performance and Safety
Getting enough quality sleep at the right times helps you function well throughout the day. People who are sleep deficient are less productive at work and school. They take longer to finish tasks, have a slower reaction time, and make more mistakes.
After several nights of losing sleep—even a loss of just 1–2 hours per night—your ability to function suffers as if you haven’t slept at all for a day or two.
Lack of sleep also may lead to microsleep. Microsleep refers to brief moments of sleep that occur when you’re normally awake.
You can’t control microsleep, and you might not be aware of it. For example, have you ever driven somewhere and then not remembered part of the trip? If so, you may have experienced microsleep.
Even if you’re not driving, microsleep can affect how you function. If you’re listening to a lecture, for example, you might miss some of the information or feel like you don’t understand the point. In reality, though, you may have slept through part of the lecture and not been aware of it.
Some people aren’t aware of the risks of sleep deficiency. In fact, they may not even realize that they’re sleep deficient. Even with limited or poor-quality sleep, they may still think that they can function well.
Drowsy drivers may feel capable of driving. Yet, studies show that sleep deficiency harms your driving ability as much as, or more than, being drunk. It’s estimated that driver sleepiness is a factor in about 100,000 car accidents each year, resulting in about 1,500 deaths.
Drivers aren’t the only ones affected by sleep deficiency. It can affect people in all lines of work, including health care workers, pilots, students, lawyers, mechanics, and assembly line workers.
As a result, sleep deficiency is not only harmful on a personal level, but it also can cause large-scale damage. For example, sleep deficiency has played a role in human errors linked to tragic accidents, such as nuclear reactor meltdowns, grounding of large ships, and aviation accidents
If you are shorting your sleep night after night, it places a tremendous strain on your nervous system, body and overall health. Damage from sleep deficiency can occur in an instant (such as a car crash), or it can harm you over time. For example, ongoing sleep deficiency can raise your risk for some chronic health problems. It also can affect how well you think, react, work, learn, and get along with others.
So, if you’re not sleeping well or aren’t feeling rested when you wake up in the morning, it’s important to talk to your doctor and ask if a sleep study is right for you. To find a healthcare provider who is practiced in helping you get a good night’s rest, go to HealthLynked.com. In our first of its kind healthcare ecosystem, you will find physicians and advice to help you stop counting sheep!
Sign up for Free and start taking control of your health today!
Mayo Clinic’s Christopher Sletten, Ph.D., ABPP discussing Central Sensitization Syndrome, which is the prevailing theory of the cause of chronic pain & other chronic symptoms. A patient and/or provider understanding of this process can lead to seeking appropriate treatments including the Pain Rehab Center (PRC) at Mayo Clinic’s Florida campus.
Learn more about the PRC program in Florida: http://mayocl.in/prcfl
Sandra Clarke, R.N., shares her story on the experience that created the spark of inspiration to create the No One Dies Alone program. Learn more about the Center for Innovation at http://mayocl.in/19CLaR6 and read our blog post about NODA at http://mayocl.in/GPVNtU.
Vivien Williams has this Mayo Clinic Minute.
(HealthDay)—Summer sun brings childhood fun, but experts warn it also brings skin cancer dangers, even for kids.
“Don’t assume children cannot get skin cancer because of their age,” said Dr. Alberto Pappo, director of the solid tumor division at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tenn. “Unlike other cancers, the conventional melanoma that we see mostly in adolescents behaves the same as it does in adults.”
His advice: “Children are not immune from extreme sun damage, and parents should start sun protection early and make it a habit for life.”
So, this and every summer, parents should take steps to shield kids from the sun’s harmful UV rays.
Those steps include:
* Avoid exposure. Infants and children younger than 6 months old should avoid sun exposure entirely, Pappo advised. If these babies are outside or on the beach this summer, they should be covered up with hats and appropriate clothing. It’s also a good idea to avoid being outside when UV rays are at their peak, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m.
* Use sunscreen. It’s important to apply a broad-spectrum sunscreen to children’s exposed skin. Choose one with at least SPF15 that protects against both UVA and UVB rays. Pappo cautioned that sunscreen needs to be reapplied every couple of hours and after swimming—even if the label says it is “water-resistant.”
However, sunscreen should not be used on infants younger than 6 months old because their exposure to the chemicals in these products would be too high, he noted.
* Keep kids away from tanning beds. Melanoma rates are rising among teenagers, partly due to their use of indoor tanning beds. Use of tanning beds by people younger than 30 boosts their risk for this deadly form of cancer by 75 percent, according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer.
* Get children screened. Early detection of melanoma is key to increasing patients’ odds of survival. Children with suspicious moles or skin lesions should be seen by a doctor as soon as possible, Pappo advised. Removing melanoma in its early stages also increases the chances of avoiding more invasive surgical procedures later on, he added.
More information: There are more sun-safety tips at the Skin Cancer Foundation.