Diet & IBD – Edward Loftus Jr., M.D.

Edward Loftus Jr., M.D., a gastroenterologist at Mayo Clinic discusses the controversial topic of using nutrition in the setting of IBD, dietary changes that may help patients with IBD, and the difficulty of proving whether or not specific diets are helpful in treating IBD.

source

To find a healthcare professional, use HealthLynked. It is a first of its kind medical network built as a social ecosystem with a higher purpose – improving healthcare.  Go to HealthLynked.com to learn more, sign up for free, connect with your doctor, find a new doctor, and securely store and share your health information. Download our HealthLynked app available on Apple and Android devices.

Awaken Your SuperHero Within | The Anti-Kryptonite Powers of Napping

At the Academy (Harvard on the Severn, Canoe U, Squid Tech), I was into napping.  Any time I could squeeze a few zzzzs into a day, especially after lunch, I would; and so would many others.  For me, I counted it as an essential escape from the rigors of military school, thinking if I slept half the day, I would be “away”from USNA half the time.

It wasn’t until much later I learned napping had other health benefits, too.

Sadly, napping is often frowned upon in our workaholic American culture. When we think of napping men, we think of Dagwood passed out on the couch after consuming a giant, delicious sandwich. Naps are thought to be habits of the lazy and unambitious, or the privilege of retirees with plenty of time on their hands. The person who falls asleep at his desk at work is laughed at and often fired.  And when we doze off, we feel guilty —  except in planes.  Always nap on planes!

In reality, the nap stigma is incredibly misplaced. Naps can be one of the most powerful tools for self-improvement; they can increase not only our health and well-being but our intelligence and productivity. This is something great achievers have known all along. History is full of famous nappers. Noted thinkers, creators and leaders, like Edison, JFK, Churchill, Aristotle, Margaret “Iron Lady” Thatcher, and Napoleon, all were ardent nappers.

Cats and Dogs Know Something You Don’t

Humans are among the few animals that take their sleep in one shot. The rest of the animal kingdom consists of polyphasic sleepers; they alternate sleep and wake cycles throughout a 24-hour period. Cavemen likely slept in multiple phases too, so someone was always up to keep an eye out for saber tooth tigers. While experimenting with a return to polyphasic sleep has become trendy in recent times, the ideal pattern for human sleep appears to be biphasic–a long stretch at night along with a shorter respite during the day.

The ancient Romans were biphasic sleepers; at sexta (the sixth hour or their noon) everyone would turn in for some midday shut eye. This is where we get the terms siesta and reposo — traditions once popular in Spain and Italy respectively but which have largely succumbed to the encroaching go-go-go Western business style.

While the pace of modern life may keep us from being the biphasic sleepers we were meant to be, the urge for a daytime snooze is still hardwired into our biology.  Many of us find it nearly impossible to get enough z’s at night, and sleep deprivation causes a host of bodily and mental ills, keeping us from performing at our best and enjoying life to the fullest.

I feel it every day, and stave it off with the obligatory midday caffeine injection.

Studies have shown when people are put into an environment that lacks any indication of time, they will fall into the long sleep at night/shorter nap during the day pattern. Thus, most of us are daily fighting tooth and nail against our body’s natural circadian rhythm.  Match this with the fact most Americans report being sleep deprived, and we are becoming a horde of drowsy zombies in mindless, relentless pursuit of espresso instead of brains.

While a good night’s sleep is essential, a daily nap can buoy us up when we’re not getting quite enough shut eye. And for those who already sleep well at night, a nap can take take the performance of your body and mind to the next level.

The Benefits of Napping

Increases alertness. When your eyelids are almost too heavy to keep open, you’re not doing your best work. Make time for a nap and then go back at it. A NASA study found a 40-minute nap increases alertness by 100%. Other studies have found that a 20-minute nap is more effective than either 200 mg of caffeine or a bout of exercise. Yet another study showed that pilots who were allowed to take a 25-minute nap (while the co-pilot manned the controls!) nodded off fives times less than their nap-deprived peers. They also made less errors during take-offs and landings.

Power naps are effective at making you more alert when you wake up because there’s very low risk of falling into a deep sleep or another sleep cycle that causes grogginess. Your brain shuts down just enough that when you wake up, you experience a jolt of alertness. Study after study has shown that people working night shifts or in high pressure jobs with long shifts are much more alert when given the opportunity to power nap, sometimes several times a day.

Beyond pilots and space jockeys, there are many jobs that require you to be alert and can be dangerous to yourself and others if you aren’t. Firefighters are a good example, though your job or situation doesn’t need to be that extreme to benefit from being alert as a result of a power nap. New parents learn to nap when their newborn does, even if it’s only for 10 minutes at a time, though other factors affect fatigue in that case. Regardless, research is solid in that power naps provide a higher level of alertness and even awareness than before catching those short z’s.

Studies have shown that if you break up your day with a nap, you will be as alert and energetic for the second part of your day as you were for the first. So, if you’ve got an event planned for after work, take a nap before going out on the town.

Improves learning and working memory. Naps improve your working memory. This type of memory is involved in working on complex tasks where you have to pay attention to one thing while holding a bunch of other things in your memory. Napping also improves your memory retention; during sleep, recent memories are transferred to the neocortex, where long-term memories are solidified and stored.

For many people, everything from power naps to 90-minute naps can be very restorative, resulting in improved memory and cognitive function. Some experts say that people who can nap properly—meaning being able to take a nap without falling into a deep sleep and waking feeling refreshed—benefit much more from these short naps than turning to energy drinks and caffeine. The nap allows them to reactivate their memory and organize information more easily.

Improved memory can be really helpful for people who have to absorb and remember a lot of information. Some require this for their jobs, but students are a prime example, and a lot of research has been done about the ways students can effectively absorb the mountain of information they’re required to learn during high school, university and college. Studies have shown that students who nap after a round of studying often wake up with a better memory of what they had been learning and reading before their nap. It’s almost like hitting reset on the brain, allowing you to remember things that you would have otherwise forgotten.

Prevents burnout and reverses information overload.  While we often refuse to take a nap because we feel like we have too much to do, studies have shown that putting in extra hours without rest dramatically reduces your productivity. It would be better to take a 30-minute nap and return to your work refreshed.

This was demonstrated in a study in which subjects performed a visual task over the course of four days. With each successive session, the subjects’ performance on the task deteriorated. But when the subjects were allowed to take a 30-minute nap after the second session, the decline in performance was halted. And after a one-hour nap, their performance actually improved in the third and fourth sessions.

Bigger companies have started to recognize the benefits of daytime napping and allow or even encourage employees to take a power nap. Some have even gone as far as to designate an area for napping. Not every company will jump on the bandwagon, but if you can go somewhere to grab a quick power nap during a lunch or early afternoon break, you could be more productive at work. But if you work the standard 9-5 shift, avoid taking naps mid to late afternoon because it could prevent you from falling asleep and sleeping well that night.

Heightens your senses and creativity. According to a foremost nap scientist (napologist? Napster? Napmeister?) Sara C. Mednick, napping can improve your sensory perception as effectively as a night of sleep. This means that steak tastes better, the sunset looks purtier, and Annie’s Song sounds even better after a good nap.

Napping also improves your creativity by both loosening up the web of ideas in your head and fusing disparate insights together.

Between your job, family responsibilities, personal relationships, social and volunteer commitments, and even just running errands, a lot of things drain you—both physically and mentally. This stress and exhaustion is a clear strain on your creativity, and it can seem almost hopeless to get back. But getting the creative juices flowing could come from taking a power nap. Stress takes it toll on the mind so shutting down with a nap could revive your mind and organize your thoughts, bringing your creativity back to you.

You don’t need to have what’s considered a creative job for waning creativity to negatively impact what you do at work. Power naps have been proven to help in this area, and a not-so-surprising amount of people struggle with it often. Every job requires some level creativity, from the obvious artistic requirements of graphic designers and architects to the deft creativity of administrative personnel organizing schedules or the insightfulness of an accountant balancing books. So, take a nap and see where your creativity goes — it could benefit you and your employer greatly.

Improves health. Sleep deprivation leads to an excess of the hormone cortisol in the body. Cortisol, known as the stress hormone, helps us deal with fight or flight responses. But excess cortisol increases glucose intolerance and abdominal fat, weakens the muscular and immune systems, stymies memory and learning, and decreases levels of growth hormone and testosterone in our bodies. These deleterious effects can lead to diabetes and heart disease.

When you sleep, you release growth hormone, the antidote to cortisol which which boosts your immune system, primes your sexual function, reduces stress and anxiety, and aids in muscle repair and weight loss. Napping gives your brain a chance to rest and your body a chance to heal.

The proof’s in the pudding. A study done with Greeks found those that took a 30-minute nap at least three times a week had a 37% lower risk of dying from a heart-related condition. Among working men their risk of death was reduced 64%! So, not only should you dance like Zorba the Greek, you should nap like him, too.

Improves mood. Odds are you know someone who is really cranky when they don’t get the sleep they need, or you might be that person. If so, you understand even more how important feeling rested is to your mood. Being tired can have a sort of snowball effect –  you are likely to feel grouchy, be short with those around you, or simply have a tough time focusing.  These and other physical and emotional reactions as a result of lack of sleep only continue to keep you in a bad mood or worsen it as the day or weeks go by.

The neurotransmitter serotonin regulates our mood, sleep, and appetites. It produces feeling of contentment and well-being. But when our bodies are stressed, higher levels of serotonin are used and the production of more is blocked. As a result, we can become anxious, irritable, depressed, overwhelmed, and easily distracted. According to Mednick, “napping bathes your brain in serotonin, reversing those effects and creating a more positive outlook.”

And the fact is, some days you just need that extra bit of shut eye. Whether you have a restless night or a stressful (and therefore tiring) week at work, a power nap can keep your spirits high. But if you have insomnia, sleep apnea, or other form of sleep condition, talk to your doctor before scheduling in any naps. People with these conditions aren’t usually encouraged to nap because of other health implications and risks, so speak to a professional first. Saves money. Instead spending $30 a week on Five Hour Energy or Starbucks, take a nap and boost your energy the natural and more effective way.

Lowers Stress.  Stress is inevitable at certain times of your life, but it doesn’t need to be constant. Research has shown that psychological pressure and stress can be reduced by taking a nap. Stress is hard on your body and getting rest from a nap after you experience an increase in stress has been linked to improved cardiovascular healing, lowering the possible effects of stress on your heart. In addition, the hormones released during a nap or night of sleep contribute to decreasing your level of stress.

A lot of people find it hard to fall asleep during the day, even when they need it or could really benefit from it. If you give napping a try and just can’t do it, don’t force it but consider still taking the time to lie down and relax. Similar to when you go to sleep, your mind has to reach a certain level of relaxation and your thoughts can’t be too loud. Achieving this during the day in place of a power nap has been shown to have similar benefits to that of actual napping, so keep that time set aside to reduce stress.

Reduced Risk of Depression.  Studies have linked people who get enough/the right amount of sleep to a lower chance of developing depression. And naps can help you get that perfect amount of rest if you don’t get it over night, so taking your power naps could be greatly beneficial to your mental and emotional health. Of course, everyone is different, and the amount of sleep needed will vary.  Get in tune with your body and figure out the length and amount of naps you need to help both your mind and body.

Similar to the reasoning for lower stress, naps give your body the rest it needs to function and perform at its best, and feeling your best all around plays a role in depression. Depression may also be reduced because stress can cause excess hormones linked to depression. Since naps can lower stress, it can then lower the risk of depression as well—napping can help balance hormones that cause mental health problems. Or even just considering the energy, alertness, reduced stress and increased productivity, the other benefits can contribute to improved mental health.

Reduced Risk of Cardiovascular Disease.  There’s still debate and differing opinions about whether or not naps can help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, but as research continues to link the two more experts are beginning to see the potential of it. It’s believed that regular naps can lower blood pressure, but even more staggering are the results of studies that have shown a significant decrease in the risk of dying from a heart attack. People in high stress jobs greatly benefit from the cardiovascular healing properties of naps because stress can strain the heart and increase the risk of cardiovascular problems.

Studies in countries that typically have a lower mortality rate and lower risk of heart disease emphasize the importance of not only getting your rest but being healthy in other ways—exercise and healthy diets are main contributors to heart health. When mixed in with regular power naps, this type of lifestyle is bound to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. So, if you haven’t tried napping, it’s not too late to enjoy the many possible benefits of rejuvenating and healing your body in many ways, and you may even help your heart.

It’s awesome. Seriously, people. Napping is awesome.  Take it from my new grandbaby.

Understanding the Stages of Sleep

All napping is good, but you can also tailor your nap to your specific needs. But before we delve into that, we need to talk about what each stage of sleep does for your mind and body.

There are five various stages of sleep, 1,2,3,4, and REM (Rapid Eye Movement). You cycle through them repeatedly as you sleep or nap: 1,2,3,4, 2, REM, 2,3,4,2, REM and so on. Each cycle lasts 90-100 minutes.

Stage 1: Lasting 2-5 minutes, this stage transitions you into sleep. Your thoughts and mental associations loosen up. This state of sort of wakeful dreaming has been used by artists and thinkers to cultivate rich ideas. We’ll cover this in-depth in a future post.

Stage 2: Motor skills and complex tasks you’ve been working on are solidified. Your energy and stamina are strengthened and senses sharpened. You spend about 50% of your sleep time in Stage 2.

Stages 3 and 4: In these stages you slide into Slow Wave Sleep. Your body stops releasing cortisol altogether and extra growth hormone goes to work restoring your body, repairing tissues, lowering stress, metabolizing fats and moving carbs out of your body. And your mind is cleared; memories that aren’t being used are pruned away, strengthening what remains and making room for new information. Information that you’ve recently and consciously learned such as the dates for a history test are solidified. You spend about 30% of your sleep time in Stages 3 and 4.

REM: During REM your brain shuttles your recently-made memories from their short term holding tank in the hippocampus to long term storage. The information is thus made permanent; if you don’t sleep soon after a learning session, you’ll lose much of what you studied. Creativity is given a boost as spatial orientation and perceptual skills are sharpened and the different insights and complex ideas you have swirling around in your melon are fused together. You spend about 20% of your sleep time in REM.

Tailoring Your Nap to Your Needs

According to Dr. Mednick, the perfect nap for everyone is 90 minutes long and taken between 1 and 3 in the afternoon. At this time, and at this length, your nap will consist of the optimal balance of all the different sleep stages. The ratio of the sleep stages in this nap exactly mirror that of nocturnal sleep. But of course, not everyone has an hour and a half to saw off during the day. And sometimes you want to tailor your nap to your particular needs on a particular day.

Note: These recommendations are based on an average adult sleep schedule (11-12 am to 6-8 am). If you’re a night owl or have a different sort of schedule, check out Dr. Mednick’s book, Take a Nap! It has a “nap wheel” and formula for calculating your perfect nap based on when you wake up and your particular needs.

You need a boost of creativity. Don’t know how many happy little clouds to add to your painting, and Bob Ross won’t be on until 3? Does writing your essay for English class feel, as Ronald Reagan put it, like crapping a pineapple? Then you need a dose of REM sleep, which increases your creativity. You’ll need a longer nap to get to the REM stage; and since potential REM peaks early in the day and declines from there, aim for something like a 90-minute nap before 2 pm.

You need stamina. Running a race that evening? Going from one job to the next? You need Stage 2 sleep which you can get in a 20-minute power nap. Don’t go down for any longer than 20 minutes though. We’ve all experienced naps that leave us groggy when we wake up. This is sleep inertia and happens when you awaken during Slow Wave Sleep. So, you need to wake up before you slip into Stage 3.

Studies have found that a 20-minute nap 8 hour after you wake up will boost your stamina more than sleeping an extra 20 minutes in the morning. So instead of hitting the snooze button, save those minutes for an afternoon siesta.

You need to relax. While REM sleep declines during the day, SWS increases. So, if you’re feeling stressed, shoot for a longer nap after 2 pm and ideally in the early evening, so your body can get a cortisol break and repair itself. Naps will not affect your nighttime sleep as long as you wake from your nap three hours before bedtime. 

You need to pull an all-nighter. Instead of downing can after can of Red Bull, try what researchers call the “prophylactic nap.” Taking a preventive nap in anticipation of sleep deprivation is more effective in maintaining cognitive performance and alertness than taking no nap at all, taking a nap when your sleep debt has already made you tired, and even taking multiple doses of caffeine. Any length of nap will help, but according to Mednick an hour and a half is the preventive nap sweet spot because “it will take you through a full cycle of sleep and bring you out in REM or Stage 2 Sleep, allowing you to avoid sleep inertia.” Keep in mind that the effects of a prophylactic nap only last 8-10 hours; nothing can keep your brain from starting to unravel if you skip two nights of sleep.

You need to ace a test. After you study and before test time, take a 90-minute nap. Stage 2 will increase your alertness, stages 3 and 4 will clear your mind of unnecessary clutter, solidify the things you just studied, and lower your stress, and REM sleep will move the information into permanent storage and sort through the complex information you just learned.

You need immediate alertness. Try a “caffeine nap.” Researchers at Loughborough University tested several ways to improve the alertness of drivers and found the “caffeine nap” to be the most effective method. You down a cup of coffee or other caffeinated beverage and then immediately hunker down for a 15 to 20-minute nap. Again, don’t go any longer or you’ll awaken with sleep inertia. The caffeine clears your body of adenosine, a chemical which makes you sleepy. It takes awhile for the caffeine to circulate through your system, so it doesn’t affect the quality of the nap. Instead, it kicks in in tandem with the refreshment you would feel upon awakening from a normal power nap. I’ve personally found the caffeine nap to be effective, especially when you’re crunched for time; it’s easier to get up and keeps you from the temptation of turning a 20-minute nap into an hour and a half session.

Squeezing in Nap Time

It would be awesome if offices took a cue from kindergarten and broke out cookies, milk, and nap mats once a day.  Maybe a little finger painting, too.

In the real world, it can be hard to catch some z’s at work. Getting caught asleep at your desk is not a good way to earn respect at your job, but most people get an hour for lunch.  You can easily eat for half that time, skip the double latte, and go take a snooze in your car for the other half. Tell your boss all about the benefits of napping and see if you can get a couch in some rarely-used room.

If you’re a student, toss embarrassment to the wind and curl up somewhere. If you can’t nap during the day, take a short pre-or post-dinner nap.

Remember, all you need to do it carve out 20 minutes somewhere in your day. One study showed that even a 6-minute nap improves memory function. So, you can even sneak one in while the guy at the desk next to you runs to the snack machine.

At the very least, learn to embrace the nap and the napping of others. Napping is not a character defect! Many great people have taken advantage of the benefits of napping. It is a wonderful, wonderful way to improve your life.

Get help Resetting and Recharging

If you are slacking in your sleep game, it places a tremendous strain on your nervous system, body and overall health. Damage from sleep deficiency can occur in an instant (such as a car crash), or it can harm you over time. For example, ongoing sleep deficiency can raise your risk for some chronic health problems. It also can affect how well you think, react, work, learn, and get along with others.

So, if you’re not sleeping well or aren’t feeling rested when you wake up in the morning, it’s important to talk to your doctor and ask if a sleep study is right for you. To find a healthcare professional, use HealthLynked. It is a first of its kind medical network built as a social ecosystem with a higher purpose – improving healthcare. Go to HealthLynked.com to learn more, sign up for free, connect with your doctor, find a new doctor, and securely store and share your health information. Download our HealthLynked app available on Apple and Android devices.

Sources: 

Take a Nap! Change Your Life by Sarah C. Mednick, Ph.D

Unleash the power of the Nap, Brett & Kate McKay | February 7, 2011, Last updated: May 28, 2018

Is Workaholism Destroying Your Health and Your Career?

Our society is obsessed with the concept we all must be the best at what we do, and overworking or becoming a ‘workaholic’ sometimes seem the best means to achieving that goal. While researchers and psychologists have been arguing for decades about what constitutes “workaholism” and whether it is a disorder at all, the term started being thrown around in the 1970s.  Since then, mountains of evidence have piled up showing workaholics display many of the same characteristics as those addicted to drugs or alcohol, such as engaging in compulsive behaviors that are ultimately destructive.

Today, there are more ways to overwork yourself than ever, and few leaders will discourage it.  Surveys  consistently show at least one-third of Americans are chronically overworked. According to the current OECD Better Life Index, the United States ranks 30 out of 38 advanced nations in the category of “work-life balance”.  While refusing vacation time, eating lunch at your desk or never shutting off your work email might seem like smart ways to impress the boss, they also could have dire consequences for your health down the road.

The research is pretty cut and dry when it comes to the effects of workaholism on mental health. 32.7 percent of workaholics met ADHD criteria, compared to 12.7 percent of non-workaholics. 25.6 percent of workaholics met OCD criteria, compared to 8.7 percent of non-workaholics. 33.8 percent of workaholics met anxiety criteria, compared to 11.9 percent of non-workaholics. And 8.9 percent of workaholics met depression criteria, compared to 2.6 percent of non-workaholics.

Consider two more facts:

  • People who work eleven hours per day rather than eight have a 67% increased risk of developing heart disease.
  • Those who work more than 50 hours per week are three times more likely to develop an alcohol-abuse problem.

Those are some pretty damning numbers.   The problem is, workaholism is the rare mental health issue that can often have positive rewards in the short term — things like the praise of a happy boss or increased income. For these reasons, psychologist Bryan Robinson once called workaholism “the best-dressed mental health problem.”

So, if you’re trying to wean yourself off your work addiction but are just having a little difficulty, here are some things to keep in mind.

Not taking vacations hurts your career.

Almost three-quarters of American workers don’t use all their vacation time and less than half take the time to plan out their vacations each year, according to Project: Time Off –  sponsored by the U.S. Travel Association. As a result, they end up burning valuable time.

By forfeiting 658 million unused vacation days, workers cost the US economy an estimated $223 billion in total economic impact and 1.6 million jobs. That makes ditching vacation both one of the most costly and common ways Americans overwork themselves.

Workers that don’t take vacation were also found to be less productive and score lower on performance reviews.

According to a new study published in the Journal of Management, there is a significant difference between being engaged at work and being addicted to it. While the former is characterized by hard work because the employee is passionate about the job, the latter is often motivated by negative feelings like guilt, fear and compulsion.

Your brain needs breaks.

So, you are totally engaged, but do you leave time to take a much needed break or two during the day? Giving your brain some down time is essential to increasing productivity. A recent study found that the ideal work-to-break ratio should be 52 minutes of work followed by a 17-minute break.

The study is backed up by several others that have found giving your brain some time to relax and day dream increases productivity, problem-solving and creativity.

Eating lunch at your desk is bad for you.

For one, a lunch break is a perfect time to recharge your gray matter.  Also, the physical activity of getting up and away from your desk can help   improve productivity and stave off obesity.  A U.K. study found that people who ate more meals at work were more likely to be overweight.

What’s more, experts agree that grabbing lunch with co-workers and clients can be a great way to network and further your career.  It is also important to note skipping lunch altogether is maybe the worst thing you can do.

Constantly checking email wastes your life.

No matter what you tell yourself, constantly being on your work email isn’t helping your state of mind or your productivity. A 2012 study found  when workers were forced to take a five-day break from work email they  experienced less stress and became more efficient at completing work tasks. The hiatus even led to workers having “more natural, variable heart rates.”

Workers who answer emails late in to the evening were also more likely to be exhausted the next day and hence less engaged, two 2014 studies found.

You’re probably hurting your relationship.

Being addicted to work can cause serious rifts between partners in romantic relationships. Since workaholism can be thought of as being similar to substance addiction, workaholics often prioritize their job over their friends and family. For example, those addicted to work can leave a disproportionate amount of domestic duties to spouses who have a more balanced approach to their careers.

Marriages involving a workaholic are twice as likely to end in divorce, a 1999 study found. For those that stay together, the psychological damage can be considerable. Kids of workaholics have been found to experience greater levels of depression and anxiety than the children of alcoholics.

You can’t keep it up forever.

In short, workaholics burn out. What may begin as simply spending a few extra hours at the office every week can quickly spiral into much more destructive behavior because workaholics don’t take the time to give themselves a break, CNNMoney reports. All that nonstop activity can result in bad personal habits and ultimately lead to what one expert called “incapacitating ‘burnout.’”  What’s more, studies have shown that limiting workers to a 40-hour week is the best way to maintain long-term productivity.

It’s bad for your co-workers and employers.

Having workers who take on too much stress, as workaholics often do, isn’t just bad for the employee — it’s bad for companies and co-workers, too. Businesses lose an estimated $300 billion in productivity due to stress each year, according to the World Health Organization.

But that stress can also have collateral damage on co-workers. Since workaholics tend to be perfectionists, they can often put added , often unnecessary stress on their colleagues, according to experts.

And even worse for you.

In short, workaholism has been linked with a laundry list of disorders, including alcoholismsleep problems, heart disease, depression and anxiety, weight gainhigh blood pressure and even premature death.

Here are a few tips you can implement to begin a much healthier relationship with your work:

Make Relaxation Part of Your Day

Learning to work smarter, not longer, will increase productivity and help to eliminate the potential disastrous results from being overworked. Take a break for a few minutes at a time each day and relax periodically. You should relax by physically slowing down. Take deeper breaths, drink more water, take a walk outside. All of these things will help you to relax your body and your mind and will make you more productive.

Condense Your Workload

Give yourself a set amount of time to work each day and each week; then stick to it. You’ll find yourself becoming more productive during the time you actually work, because you have to get your stuff done faster. To help you stick with your new schedule, set appointments for 30 minutes after you’re supposed to be done. So, if you tell yourself you’re absolutely going to stop working at 5 p.m., set an appointment for 5:30 p.m. and stick to it. Make it a barber or beauty shop, or an appointment with your spouse or kids or workout partner. Whatever you do, stick to it.

Have Set Email and Social Media Times

Don’t allow yourself to be available to the world every minute of the day. Set times when you will check and respond to email. You really don’t need to be connected all the time. Now, take the time that you save from responding to email, and claim it by reducing your work hours. Also, now that you’re not being interrupted all the time, you can focus more.

Don’t Skip the Vacation

Taking the occasional vacation for a few days at a time can help you physically and emotionally recharge. If you can’t afford your dream vacation, more affordable mini vacations or stay-cations can be the answer. Take a day off to go hiking or sightseeing. Visit a relative within driving distance for the weekend. Pretend you’re a tourist in your own city and visit some attractions. Take the family camping.

Whatever your vacation idea, schedule it on your calendar and plan for it in advance. The payoff is greater balance between your personal and professional lives as well as delivering the emotional lift of something to look forward to. Your business will survive without you, so leave the laptop at home.

To avoid becoming one of the statistics from above, there are resources available for those who feel they may be losing the ability to balance their personal and work lives.   For example, Workaholics Anonymous is a 12-step program based on the one designed for recovering alcoholics. It’s just one of many ways people can learn to set clear boundaries between the office and the home, according to CNNMoney.

Finally, if you are looking for a health professional who might help you find a really great work life balance, you can find them using HealthLynked. It is a first of its kind medical network built as a social ecosystem with a higher purpose – improving healthcare. Go to HealthLynked.com to learn more, sign up for free, connect with your doctor, find a new doctor, and securely store and share your health information. Download our HealthLynked app available on Apple and Android devices.

Sources:
Why Being A Workaholic Is Awful For You AND Everyone Around You, Harry Bradford, Huffington Post

Being a Workaholic is Bad For Your Health, Scott And Heidi Shimberg, 28 May 2015

Make the Difference: Preventing Medical Trainee Suicide

Pressure in the high-stakes environment of medical training can be overwhelming. This video from Mayo Clinic and the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention explains how everyone can help prevent suicide by being alert for the signs of depression and escaping stress and how to be most helpful.

source

To find like minded healthcare professionals, use HealthLynked. It is a first of its kind medical network built as a social ecosystem with a higher purpose – improving healthcare. Go to HealthLynked.com to learn more, sign up to be an in-network provider, connect with your fellow consituents, and securely share health records with your patients. Download our HealthLynked app available on Apple and Android devices.

Relativity, Radiology and 6 Things You May not Know About Einstein

More than any other profession, radiologists and radiologic technologists put theoretical quantum physics to practical use Improving the health and lives of their patients. Although quantum light theory can explain everything from the tiniest subatomic particles to immense galaxy-devouring black holes, radiologists apply this technology at the human level to diagnose and treat disease and thus alleviate human suffering.

More than 100 years ago in 1895, Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered a form of radiation which had strange new properties. These new rays were so unique and mysterious that he named them “X-rays”, for the unknown. Although often described as a fortuitous discovery, chance favors the prepared mind, and Roentgen’s astute observations back then are still accurate today.

X-rays

6 Things You May not Know About Einstein
Digital portrait of Wilhelm Roentgen holding a cathode ray tube. Image by Mark Hom
  • transmit in complete darkness
  • invisible to the human eye
  • originate from a cathode ray tube
  • expose covered photographic plates
  • diminish in intensity following the inverse square law of light emission
  • soft tissues appear trans­parent, but metal and bone appear opaque.
  • transparency of intervening objects depends on their molecular density and thickness
  • not reflected by mirrors nor deflected by glass prisms
  • travel at a constant speed – the speed of light
  • share some properties with visible light, yet also have uniquely different properties

For the very first time, doctors (without using a scalpel) could see beyond the skin surface of their patients and peer deep inside the human body. It was later found that X-rays were a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths shorter and with energies greater than visible light.

Subsequent research into particle theory by Albert Einstein and others led to the physics principles that not only laid the groundwork for state-of-the-art medical imaging but also changed the understanding of our entire universe, from the mechanics of the atom to the largest objects in the universe. In 1901, Roentgen received the very first Nobel Prize awarded in physics, an indication that his discovery of a form of invisible light was the beginning of a remarkable scientific journey.

Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein’s theories of relativity soon followed and would explain the space time continuum and the equivalence of mass and energy. Throughout his brilliant career, Einstein was fascinated and preoccupied with the strange properties of light. Einstein once said, “For the rest of my life I will reflect on what light is.”

His concept of special relativity came to him when he was riding his bicycle towards a lamp post. He realized that the speed of light was the only constant for all observers and that the classic Newtonian measurements of mass, distance, and time were all subject to change at velocities approaching the speed of light. Einstein’s relativity means that the science fiction adventures of galaxy-hopping space travel in Star Trek and Star Wars are mere fantasy. The vast distances of space and the universal speed limit of light make intergalactic travel too impractical. If a hypothetical space craft approaches the speed of light, time slows, length compresses, the mass of the space craft increases, and impossibly high amounts of energy are required. At a certain point, the space craft stops accelerating, despite greater and greater energy input.

A result of Einstein’s special theory of relativity has been called the most famous equation in all of science. Energy (E) equals mass (m) multiplied by the speed of light squared (c2), that is E=mc2. This simple equation, which states that energy and mass are interchangeable quantities, is often misinterpreted as the formula of the atomic bomb. The principle of the atomic bomb is bom­bardment of a uranium atom with a neutron that splits the uranium atom into two smaller atoms and more neutrons that trigger a fission chain reaction. Although tremendous energy is released, it is the energy of internuclear binding forces, and there is no appreciable change in mass.

A much better demonstration of E=mc2 is the physics of positron emission tomography (PET scan­ning), in which an electron and positron (the antiparticle of an electron) annihilate each other and convert their masses into pure light energy, consisting of photons traveling in opposite directions. This light is detected and calculated as a three-dimensional image of the patient. Einstein was another founder of radiology because his theory of the Photoelectric Effect (published in 1905 and awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921) explained how X-rays interact with matter. This theory also showed that light was absorbed and emitted in discreet packets of energy, leading to the Quantum Theory revolution in physics. 6 Things You May not Know About Einstein

Here are a few more interesting things to know about Einstein’s theory of relativity:

  1. Einstein relied on friends and colleagues to help him develop his theory. 
    Though the theory of general relativity is often presented as a work of solo genius, Einstein actually received considerable help from several lesser-known friends and colleagues in working on the math behind it. College friends Marcel Grossmann and Michele Basso (Einstein supposedly relied on Grossmann’s notes after skipping class) were especially important in the process. Einstein and Grossman, a math professor at Swiss Polytechnic, published an early version of the general relativity theory in 1913, while Besso—whom Einstein had credited in the acknowledgments of his 1905 paper on the special theory of relativity—worked extensively with Einstein to develop the general theory over the next two years. The work of the great mathematicians David Hilbert—more on him later—and Emmy Noether also contributed to the equations behind general relativity. By the time the final version was published in 1916, Einstein also benefited from the work of younger physicists like Gunnar Nordström and Adriaan Fokker, both of whom helped him elaborate his theory and shape it from the earlier version.
  2. The early version of the theory contained a major error. 
    The version published by Einstein and Grossmann in 1913, known as the Entwurf (“outline”) paper, contained a major math error in the form of a miscalculation in the amount a beam of light would bend due to gravity. The mistake might have been exposed in 1914, when German astronomer Erwin Finlay Freundlich traveled to Crimea to test Einstein’s theory during the solar eclipse that August. Freundlich’s plans were foiled, however, by the outbreak of World War I in Europe. By the time he introduced the final version of general relativity in November 1915, Einstein had changed the field equations, which determine how matter curves space-time.
  3. Einstein’s now-legendary paper didn’t make him famous—at first. 
    The unveiling of his masterwork at the Prussian Academy of Sciences—and later in the pages of Annelen Der Physik—certainly afforded Einstein a great deal of attention, but it wasn’t until 1919 that he became an international superstar. That year, British physicist Arthur Eddington performed the first experimental test of the general relativity theory during the total solar eclipse that occurred on May 29. In an experiment conceived by Sir Frank Watson Dyson, Astronomer Royal of Britain, Eddington and other astronomers measured the positions of stars during the eclipse and compared them with their “true” positions. They found that the gravity of the sun did change the path of the starlight according to Einstein’s predictions. When Eddington announced his findings in November 1919, Einstein made the front pages of newspapers around the world.
  4. Another scientist (and former friend) accused Einstein of plagiarism. 
    In 1915, the leading German mathematician David Hilbert invited Einstein to give a series of lectures at the University of Gottingen. The two men talked over general relativity (Einstein was still having serious doubts about how to get his theory and equations to work) and Hilbert began developing his own theory, which he completed at least five days BEFORE Einstein made his presentation in November 1915. What began as an exchange of ideas between friends and fellow scientists turned acrimonious, as each man accused the other of plagiarism. Einstein, of course, got the credit, and later historical research found that he deserved it: Analysis of Hilbert’s proofs showed he lacked a crucial ingredient known as covariance in the version of the theory completed that fall. Hilbert actually didn’t publish his article until March 31, 1916, weeks after Einstein’s theory was already public. By that time, historians say, his theory was covariant.
  5. At the time of Einstein’s death in 1955, scientists still had almost no evidence of general relativity in action. 
    Though the solar eclipse test of 1919 showed that the sun’s gravity appeared to bend light in the way Einstein had predicted, it wasn’t until the 1960s that scientists would begin to discover the extreme objects, like black holes and neutron stars, that influenced the shape of space-time according to the principles of general relativity. Until very recently, they were still searching for evidence of gravitational waves, those ripples in the fabric of space-time caused (according to Einstein) by the acceleration of massive objects. In February 2016, the long wait came to an end, as scientists at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) announcedthey had detected gravitational waves caused by the collision of two massive black holes.
  6. You can thank Einstein for GPS. 
    Though Einstein’s theory mostly functions among things like PET scanners and in the black holes and cosmic collisions of the heavens, on an ultra-small scale (think string theory), it also plays a role in our everyday lives. GPS technology is one outstanding example of this. General relativity shows that the rate at which time flows depends on how close one is to a massive body. This concept is essential to GPS, which takes into account the fact that time is flowing at a different rate for satellites orbiting the Earth than it is for us on the ground. As a result, time on a GPS satellite clock advances faster than a clock on the ground by about 38 microseconds a day. This might not seem like a significant difference, but if left unchecked it would cause navigational errors within minutes. GPS compensates for the time difference, electronically adjusting rates of the satellite clocks and building mathematical functions within the computer to solve for the user’s exact location—all thanks to Einstein and relativity.

Quantum Theory

Following Einstein’s ideas that light was transmitted in packets of energy, Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg developed a model of the atom that diverged from classic Newtonian physics. The Rutherford atomic model consisting of electrons orbiting the central nucleus was inadequate because charged particles changing direction in an orbit would lose energy and fall into the nucleus. Bohr’s model had to explain the Photoelectric Effect, chemical reactions, and the inherent stability of atoms.

A carbon atom can undergo countless chemical reactions yet remains a carbon atom. As Bohr further investigated the atom, the simplistic idea of light just being a wave and electrons just being particles was no longer valid. With the Photoelectric Effect, Einstein showed that light could be a photon particle. Louis de Broglie then showed that particles could be waves. Both photons and electrons have particle-wave duality. The electron therefore could exist as a standing wave around the nucleus, absorb and emit quanta of light energy, and yet remain stable.

The paradoxes that resulted from Bohr’s quantum theory shook the foundations of science. Werner Heisenberg found that the method of investiga­tion alters the result of an experiment. He explained this idea mathematically in his Uncertainty Principle, which remains a major tenet of quantum mechanics. The light used to measure particles imparts energy, altering the momentum or location of the particles, thus changing the results by the mere act of obser­vation. An experiment can be designed to measure either momentum or location precisely, but not both (the experimenter must choose).

“The violent reaction on the recent development of modern physics can only be understood when one realizes that here the foundations of physics have started moving; and that this motion has caused the feeling that the ground would be cut from science.” – Werner Heisenberg

This finding was unsettling for physicists who strove for precise measurements, because precision was not possible at the atomic and subatomic levels. Heisenberg showed that every experiment (and radiologic examination) is subject to limitation. Einstein objected to this inherent fuzziness, stating that “God does not play dice with the Universe.”

The Doppler Effect

Christian Doppler was a professor who studied mathematics, physics, and astronomy. He published a paper on spin­ning binary star systems, noting that starlight shifts to the violet spectrum when a star is moving toward an observer on Earth, and that starlight shifts to the red when a star is moving away. The explanation was that the wavelength of the light wave was compressed or elongated depending on the motion of the source relative to the observer.

When the Doppler Effect is applied to sound, it explains the tone of an approaching or departing train whistle; when applied to radar it pre­dicts violent weather; when applied to ultrasound (another radiology modality) it determines the direction and velocity of blood flow; and when applied to distant starlight it explains our expanding (red shifted) universe. Using Doppler ultrasound, a technologist can screen for: the risk of stroke from carotid artery stenosis, renal arterial causes of hypertension, abdominal aortic aneurysms, periph­eral vascular disease, deep vein thrombosis, portal vein thrombosis and varices, and post-catheterization pseudo-aneurysms.

Countless lives have been saved or improved because of a phenomenon originally observed in starlight. Doppler’s idea extends well beyond the sonography suite and even tells us about the origins of our universe. Edwin Hubble demonstrated that all objects observed in deep space have a Doppler red-shifted veloc­ity that is proportional to the object’s distance from the Earth and all other interstellar bodies. This tells us that our universe is expanding and supports the theory that the universe was created by the Big Bang, which occurred about 13.7 billion years ago.

Old Master Painters

Artists such as Rembrandt and Vermeer (17th century) were adept at depicting light to create the illusion of realistic three-dimensional subjects on two dimensional canvases. These artists studied the interaction of light with their models and understood visual percep­tion of subtle shading and light to make their artwork dramatic and convincing.

Rembrandt van Rijn’s famous por­traits and self-portraits displayed skill with light source positioning and intensity, later duplicated by movie director Cecil B DeMille who coined the term “Rembrandt lighting,” a technique that is still used today by portrait photographers. Johannes Vermeer was skilled at depicting subjects in naturally lit interiors with a subtle photorealistic style that is con­sidered uncanny even today.

Some believe Vermeer used special optics and mirrors because his depiction of light was too subtle for the naked eye to detect.  For example, scientific analysis showed that his backgrounds demonstrated the inverse square law, with exponential diffusion of light, which is difficult to capture when using only an artistic eye.

Experienced radiologic technologists use artistic vision when they create radiographs. By positioning and framing their subjects and by adjusting contrast and exposure, each image can be a work of art, not only pleasing to the eye but also containing a wealth of infor­mation.

Light as the Medium for Medical Imaging

Light, as visual information, is portrayed in art. Light also is the medium for medical imaging, whether in the form of a backlit film, cathode ray tube monitor, liquid crystal display screen, or plasma monitor. The eye is our most complex and highly evolved sense organ, capable of detecting subtle changes in light and color, and transferring this information (via the optic nerves and optic tracts) to the visual cortex of our occipital lobes.

However, what distinguishes artists and seasoned radiology professionals from other people is post-pro­cessing (i.e., the thinking that occurs after perceiving visual data). Much of science and medicine is about logic, language, analysis, and categorization (left brain functions). However, visual processing (the artistic eye) is about conceptualization, spatial orientation, and pattern recognition (right brain functions). These right brain skills are harder to teach and measure but are just as important in radiology.

With the rapid increases in digital image resolution and in the number of multi-planar images involved with each case, developing the right brain is crucial to make sense of this visual information overload. Knowingly or unknowingly, seasoned radiologists develop the right side of their brains through the experience of viewing thousands of medical images. This “artistic eye” can be further enhanced in radiolo­gists and radiologic technologists who appreciate the techniques used by great artists. Or better yet, they can train their right brains by creating original art themselves.

Conclusion

Radiologists and radiologic technologists use light technology and artistic vision in their daily work. They sense subtle shades, recognize patterns, and use symmetry and bal­ance to detect abnormalities. When this artistic skill is applied in combination with an appreciation for the underlying physics that created the images, a thorough knowledge of human anatomy, and an understanding of the pathophysiology of disease, they serve their patients by providing timely diagnosis and excellent medical care.

Sources:  This is the synthesis of two articles:

[1]  PRUITT, SARAH.  6 Things You Might Not Know About Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, MARCH 18, 2016, History.com

[2]  Hom, Mark. Radiology: Combining Quantum Theory, Medicine, and Artistic Vision, http://scitechconnect.elsevier.com/radiology-quantum-theory-medicine, January 25, 2016

More Information

For more about Dr. Hom’s writings, concepts, and artwork, please refer to his recent articles and book:

The Art and Science of Light: An Illustrated Retrospective, Mark Hom, Radiologic Technology, July/Aug 2015 86 (6), 702-708.
The Artistic Eye and the Radiologist, Mark Hom, American Roentgen Ray Society, Senior Radiologists Section Notes, Fall 2014.
The Science of Fitness: Power, Performance, and Endurance, Greg LeMond and Mark Hom, Publisher: Elsevier, December 2014.

This article first appeared on Memeburn.com

Dr. Mark Hom is a Johns Hopkins University trained biologist, an award-winning medical illustrator, an interventional radiologist, an educator of young doctors, an Elsevier author, and an avid fitness cyclist. Dr. Hom’s work with Greg LeMond in their recent book The Science of Fitness: Power, Performance, and Endurance explains how the human body, various organ systems, and individual cells function in the biologic process of exercise. He is currently a member of the Department of Radiology at Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, VA, USA.

To find a healthcare professional, use HealthLynked. It is a first of its kind medical network built as a social ecosystem with a higher purpose – improving healthcare. Go to HealthLynked.com to learn more, sign up for free, connect with your doctor, find a new doctor, and securely store and share your health information. Download our HealthLynked app available on Apple and Android devices.

Antibody helps detect protein implicated in Alzheimer’s, other diseases

May lead to novel ways to diagnose, monitor brain injury

by Tamara Bhandari•April 19, 2017

Researchers use mouse brains (above) to study ways to measure the brain protein tau, which plays a role in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. A team led by scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has found a way to measure tau levels in the blood. The study, in mice and a small group of people, could be the first step toward a noninvasive test for tau

Damaging tangles of the protein tau dot the brains of people with Alzheimer’s and many other neurodegenerative diseases, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy, which plagues professional boxers and football players. Such tau-based diseases can lead to memory loss, confusion and, in some, aggressive behavior. But there is no easy way to determine whether people’s symptoms are linked to tau tangles in their brains.

Now, however, a team led by scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has found a way to measure tau levels in the blood. The method accurately reflects levels of tau in the brain that are of interest to scientists because they correlate with neurological damage. The study, in mice and a small group of people, could be the first step toward a noninvasive test for tau.

While further evaluation in people is necessary, such a test potentially could be used to quickly screen for tau-based diseases, monitor disease progression and measure the effectiveness of treatments designed to target tau.

The research is published April 19 in Science Translational Medicine.

“We showed that you can measure tau in the blood, and it provides insight into the status of tau in the fluid surrounding cells in the brain,” said senior author David Holtzman, MD, the Andrew B. and Gretchen P. Jones Professor and head of the Department of Neurology at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

Tau is a normal brain protein involved in maintaining the structure of neurons. But when tau forms tangles, it damages and kills nearby neurons.

“People with tau diseases have a wide range of symptoms because basically, wherever tau is aggregating, those parts of the brain are degenerating,” Holtzman said. “So if it’s in a memory area, you get memory problems. If it’s in a motor area, you get problems with movement.”

A blood-based screening test, likely years away, would be a relatively easy way to identify people whose symptoms may be due to problems with tau, without subjecting them to potentially invasive, expensive or complicated tests.

“We have no test that accurately reflects the status of tau in the brain that is quick and easy for patients,” Holtzman said. “There are brain scans to measure tau tangles, but they are not approved for use with patients yet. Tau levels can be measured in the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord, but in order to get to that fluid, you have to do a spinal tap, which is invasive.”

In the brain, most tau proteins are inside cells, some are in tangles, and the remainder float in the fluid between cells. Such fluid constantly is being washed out of the brain into the blood, and tau comes with it. However, the protein is cleared from the blood almost as soon as it gets there, so the levels, while detectable, typically remain very low.

Holtzman, postdoctoral researcher Kiran Yanamandra, PhD, and MD/PhD student Tirth Patel, along with colleagues from C2N Diagnostics, AbbVie, the University of California, San Francisco, and Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital, reasoned that if they could keep tau in the blood longer, the protein would accumulate to measurable levels. Allowing the protein to accumulate before measuring its levels would magnify – but not distort – differences between individuals, in the same way that enlarging a picture of a grain of sand alongside a grain of rice does not change the relative size of the two, but does make it easier to measure the difference between them.

The researchers injected a known amount of tau protein directly into the veins of mice and monitored how quickly the protein disappeared from the blood. The researchers showed that half the protein normally disappears in less than nine minutes. When they added an antibody that binds to tau, the half-life of tau was extended to 24 hours. The antibody was developed in the laboratories of Holtzman and Marc Diamond, MD, of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and is currently licensed to C2N Diagnostics, which is collaborating with the pharmaceutical company AbbVie in developing the technology.

To determine whether the antibody could amplify tau levels in an animal’s blood high enough to be measured easily, they injected the antibody into mice. Within two days, tau levels in the mice’s blood went up into the easily detectable range. The antibody acted like a magnifying glass, amplifying tau levels so that differences between individuals could be seen more easily.

Tau levels in people’s blood also rose dramatically in the presence of the antibody. The researchers administered the antibody to four people with a tau disease known as progressive supranuclear palsy. Their blood levels of tau rose 50- to 100-fold within 48 hours.

“It’s like a stress test,” Holtzman said. “We appear to be bringing out the ability to see what’s coming from the brain because the antibody amplifies differences by prolonging the time the protein stays in the blood.”

Measuring tau levels in the blood is only useful if it reflects tau levels in the brain, where the protein does its damage, the researchers said.

Both high and low levels of tau in the fluid that surrounds the brain could be a danger sign. Alzheimer’s and chronic traumatic encephalopathy both are associated with high levels of soluble tau, whereas progressive supranuclear palsy and other genetic tau diseases are thought to be associated with low levels.

To see whether elevated brain tau is reflected in the blood, the researchers treated mice with a chemical that injures neurons. The chemical causes tau to be released from the dying neurons, thereby raising tau levels in the fluid surrounding the cells. The scientists saw a corresponding increase of tau in the blood in the presence of the anti-tau antibody.

To lower tau levels, the researchers turned to genetically modified mice that, as they age, have less and less tau floating in their cerebrospinal fluid. Such mice at 9 months old had significantly lower tau levels in their blood than 3-month-old mice with the same genetic modification, again demonstrating the antibody’s ability to reflect levels of tau in the brain.

“It will be helpful in future studies to see if the measurement of tau in the blood following antibody treatment in humans reflects the state of tau in the brain,” Holtzman said.

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Yanamandra K, Patel TK, Jiang H, Schindler S, Ulrich JD, Boxer AL, Miller BL, Kerwin DR, Gallardo G, Stewart F, Finn MB, Cairns NJ, Verghese PB, Fogelman I, West T, Braunstein J, Robinson G, Keyser J, Roh J, Knapik SS, Hu Y, Holtzman DM. “Anti-tau antibody markedly increases plasma tau in mouse and man: Correlation with soluble brain tau.” Science Translational Medicine. April 19, 2017.

This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), grant number NIH R01AG048678, C2N Diagnostics, the Tau Consortium and the JPB Foundation.

Holtzman and other authors on this paper developed the antibody used in this study and are inventors on a submitted patent “Antibodies to Tau” that is licensed by Washington University to C2N Diagnostics LLC. This patent subsequently was licensed to AbbVie. Yanamandra was a postdoctoral researcher at Washington University during the course of these studies and now is an employee at AbbVie.

Washington University School of Medicine‘s 2,100 employed and volunteer faculty physicians also are the medical staff of Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals. The School of Medicine is one of the leading medical research, teaching and patient-care institutions in the nation, currently ranked seventh in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Through its affiliations with Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children’s hospitals, the School of Medicine is linked to BJC HealthCare.

MEDIA CONTACT
Diane Duke Williams, Associate Director for Media Relations

314-286-0111
[email protected]
WRITER
Tamara Bhandari, Senior Medical Sciences Writer

Tamara Bhandari covers pathology, immunology, medical microbiology, cell biology, neurology, and radiology. She holds a bachelor’s degree in molecular biophysics and biochemistry and in sociology from Yale University, a master’s in public health/infectious diseases from the University of California, Berkeley, and a PhD in infectious disease immunology from the University of California, San Diego.

P314-286-0122
[email protected]


To find a healthcare professional, use HealthLynked. It is a first of its kind medical network built as a social ecosystem with a higher purpose – improving healthcare. Go to HealthLynked.com to learn more, sign up for free, connect with your doctor, find a new doctor, and securely store and share your health information. Download our HealthLynked app available on Apple and Android devices.

“Doing It My Way, Testing for HIV” | HIV Testing Day 2018

National HIV Testing Day (NHTD) is an annual observance encouraging people of all ages to get tested for HIV and to know their status.  Too many people are unaware they have HIV. At the end of 2014, an estimated 1.1 million persons aged 13 and older were living with HIV infection in the United States, including an estimated 166,000 (15%, or 1 in 7) persons whose infections had not been diagnosed.

Getting tested is the first step to finding out if you have HIV. If you have HIV, getting medical care, taking medicines regularly and changes in behavior help you live a longer, healthier life and will lower the chances of passing HIV on to others.

Testing is the only way for the Americans living with undiagnosed HIV to know their HIV status and get into care. CDC estimates that more than 90% of all new infections could be prevented by proper testing and linking HIV positive persons to care. HIV testing saves lives! It is one of the most powerful tools in the fight against HIV

How do I know if I am at risk to get HIV? 

Knowing your risk can help you make important decisions to prevent exposure to HIV.  Overall, an American has a 1 in 99 chance of being diagnosed with HIV at some point in his or her lifetime. However, the lifetime risk is much greater among some populations. If current diagnosis rates continue the lifetime risk of getting HIV is:

  • 1 in 6 for gay and bisexual men overall
  • 1 in 2 for African American gay and bisexual men
  • 1 in 4 for Hispanic gay and bisexual men
  • 1 in 11 for white gay and bisexual men
  • 1 in 20 for African American men overall
  • 1 in 48 for African American women overall
  • 1 in 23 for women who inject drugs
  • 1 in 36 for men who inject drugs

Your health behaviors also affect your risk. You can get or transmit HIV only through specific activities. HIV is commonly transmitted through anal or vaginal sex without a condom or sharing injection and other drug injection equipment with a person infected with HIV. Substance use can increase the risk of exposure to HIV because alcohol and other drugs can affect your decision to use condoms during sex. To learn more about your HIV risk and ways to reduce these risks, visit: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/hivrisk/

How do HIV, Viral Hepatitis, and STDs relate to each other? 

Persons who have an STD are at least two to five times more likely than uninfected persons to acquire HIV infection if they are exposed to the virus through sexual contact. In addition, if a person who is HIV positive also has an STD, that person is more likely to transmit HIV through sexual contact than other HIV-infected persons.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV are bloodborne viruses transmitted primarily through sexual contact and injection drug use. Because of these shared modes of transmission, a high proportion of adults at risk for HIV infection are also at risk for HBV infection. HIV-positive persons who become infected with HBV are at increased risk for developing chronic HBV infection and should be tested. In addition, persons who are co-infected with HIV and HBV can have serious medical complications, including an increased risk for liver-related morbidity and mortality.

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease in the United States. For persons who are HIV infected, co-infection with HCV can result in a more rapid occurrence of liver damage and may also impact the course and management of HIV infection.

How do I protect myself and others from HIV, Viral Hepatitis, and STDs? 

HIV Prevention

Your life matters and staying healthy is important. It’s important for you, the people who care about you, and your community that you know your HIV status.  Knowing give you powerful information to help take steps to keep you and others healthy. You should get tested for HIV, and encourage others to get tested too.

For people who are sexually active, there are more tools available today to prevent HIV than ever before. The list below provides a number of ways you can lower your chances of getting HIV. The more of these actions you take, the safer you can be.

  • Get tested and treated for other STDs and encourage your partners to do the same.All adults and adolescents from ages 13-64 should be tested at least once for HIV, and high-risk groups get tested more often.  STDs can have long-term health consequences.  They can also increase your chance of getting HIV or transmitting it to others. It is important to have an honest and open talk with your healthcare provider and ask whether you should be tested for STDs.  Your healthcare provider can offer you the best care if you discuss your sexual history openly.
  • Choose less risky sexual behaviors. Oral sex is much less risky than anal or vaginal sex for HIV transmission. Anal sex is the highest-risk sexual activity for HIV transmission. Sexual activities that do not involve the potential exchange of bodily fluids carry no risk for getting HIV (e.g., touching).
  • Use condoms consistently and correctly.
  • Reduce the number of people you have sex with.  The number of sex partners you have affects your HIV risk. The more partners you have, the more likely you are to have a partner with HIV whose viral load is not suppressed or to have a sex partner with a sexually transmitted disease. Both of these factors can increase the risk of HIV transmission.
  • Talk to your doctor about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). CDC recommends that PrEP be considered for people who are HIIV-negative and at substantial risk for being exposed to HIV.For sexual transmission, this includes HIIV-negative persons who are in an ongoing relationship with an HIV-positive partner. It also includes anyone who 1) is not in a mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who recently tested HIV-negative, and 2) is a gay or bisexual man who has had sex without a condom or been diagnosed with an STD in the past 6 months; or heterosexual man or woman who does not regularly use condoms during sex with partners of unknown HIV status who are at substantial risk of HIV infection (e.g., people who inject drugs or have bisexual male partners). For people who inject drugs, this includes those who have injected drugs in the past 6 months and who have shared injection equipment or been in drug treatment for injection drug use in the past 6 months.
  • Talk to your doctor right away (within 3 days) about post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) if you have a possible exposure to HIV. An example of a possible exposure is if you have anal or vaginal sex without a condom with someone who is or may be HIV-positive, and you are HIV-negative and not taking PrEP. Your chance of exposure to HIV is lower if your HIV-positive partner is taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) consistently and correctly, especially if his/her viral load is undetectable. Starting medicine immediately (known as post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP) and taking it daily for 4 weeks reduces your chance of getting HIV.
  • If your partner is HIV-positive, encourage your partner to get and stay on treatment.  ART reduces the amount of HIV virus (viral load) in blood and body fluids. ART can keep people with HIV healthy for many years, and greatly reduce the chance of transmitting HIV to sex partners if taken consistently and correctly.

Hepatitis Prevention

The best way to prevent both Hepatitis A and B is by getting vaccinated.   There is no vaccine available to prevent Hepatitis C.  The best way to prevent Hepatitis C is by avoiding behaviors that can spread the disease, such as sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs.

STD Prevention

The only way to avoid STDs is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex. If you are sexually active, you can do several things to lower your chances of getting an STD, including:

  • Get tested for STDs and encourage your partner(s) to do the same. It is important to have an honest and open talk with your healthcare provider and ask whether you should be tested for STDs.  Your healthcare provider can offer you the best care if you discuss your sexual history openly.
  • Get vaccinated. Vaccines are safe, effective, and recommended ways to prevent hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and HPV.
  • Be in a sexually active relationship with only one person, who has agreed to be sexually active only with you.
  • Reduce your number of sex partners.  By doing so, you decrease your risk for STDs. It is still important that you and your partner get tested, and that you share your test results with one another.
  • Use a condom every time you have vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Correct and consistent use of the male latex condomis highly effective in reducing STD transmission.

What puts me at risk for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, and STDs? 

Risks for HIV

The most common ways HIV is transmitted in the United States is through anal or vaginal sex or sharing drug injection equipment with a person infected with HIV. Although the risk factors for HIV are the same for everyone, some racial/ethnic, gender, and age groups are far more affected than others.

What puts me at risk for Hepatitis A?

Hepatitis A is usually spread when a person ingests fecal matter — even in microscopic amounts — from contact with objects, food, or drinks contaminated by the feces or stool of an infected person. Due to routine vaccination of children, Hepatitis A has decreased dramatically in the United States. Although anyone can get Hepatitis A, certain groups of people are at higher risk, including men who have sex with men, people who use illegal drugs, people who travel to certain international countries, and people who have sexual contact with someone who has Hepatitis A.

What puts me at risk for Hepatitis B?

Hepatitis B is usually spread when blood, semen, or another body fluid from a person infected with the Hepatitis B virus enters the body of someone who is not infected. This can happen through sexual contact with an infected person or sharing needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment. Hepatitis B can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby at birth.

Among adults in the United States, Hepatitis B is most commonly spread through sexual contact and accounts for nearly two-thirds of acute Hepatitis B cases. Hepatitis B is 50–100 times more infectious than HIV.

What puts me at risk for Hepatitis C?

Hepatitis C is usually spread when blood from a person infected with the Hepatitis C virus enters the body of someone who is not infected. Today, most people become infected with the Hepatitis C virus by sharing needles or other equipment to inject drugs. Hepatitis C was also commonly spread through blood transfusions and organ transplants prior to the early 1990’s. At that time, widespread screening of the blood supply began in the United States, which has helped ensure a safe blood supply.

STDs

Risks for  Genital Herpes

Genital herpes is a common STD, and most people with genital herpes infection do not know they have it.   You can get genital herpes from an infected partner, even if your partner has no herpes symptoms.  There is no cure for herpes, but medication is available to reduce symptoms and make it less likely that you will spread herpes to a sex partner.

Risks for Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

HPV is so common that most sexually active people get it at some point in their lives. Anyone who is sexually active can get HPV, even if you have had sex with only one person. In most cases, HPV goes away on its own and does not cause any health problems. But when HPV does not go away, it can cause health problems like genital warts and cancer. HPV is passed on through genital contact (such as vaginal and anal sex). You can pass HPV to others without knowing it.

Risks for Chlamydia

Most people who have chlamydia don’t know it since the disease often has no symptoms.  Chlamydia is the most commonly reported STD in the United States.  Sexually active females 25 years old and younger need testing every year. Although it is easy to cure, chlamydia can make it difficult for a woman to get pregnant if left untreated.

Risks for Gonorrhea

Anyone who is sexually active can get gonorrhea, an STD that can cause infections in the genitals, rectum, and throat. It is a very common infection, especially among young people ages 15-24 years. But it can be easily cured.  You can get gonorrhea by having anal, vaginal, or oral sex with someone who has gonorrhea. A pregnant woman with gonorrhea can give the infection to her baby during childbirth.

Risks for Syphilis

Any sexually active person can get syphilis. It is more common among men who have sex with men. Syphilis is passed through direct contact with a syphilis sore. Sores occur mainly on the external genitals, anus, or in the rectum. Sores also can occur on the lips and in the mouth. A pregnant women with syphilis can give the infection to her unborn baby.

Risks for Bacterial Vaginosis

BV is common among women of childbearing age. Any woman can get BV, but women are at a higher risk for BV if they have a new sex partner, multiple sex partners, use an intrauterine device (IUD), and/or douche.

Managing Your Appointments

HIV is a treatable condition. If you are diagnosed early, get on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and adhere to your medication, you can stay healthy, live a normal life span, and reduce the chances of transmitting HIV to others. Part of staying healthy is seeing your HIV care provider regularly so that he or she can track your progress and make sure your HIV treatment is working for you.

Your HIV care provider might be a doctor, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant. Some people living with HIV go to an HIV clinic; others see an HIV specialist at a community health center, Veterans Affairs clinic, or other health clinic; and some people see their provider in a private practice. Current guidelines recommend that most people living with HIV see their provider for lab tests every 3 to 4 months. Some people may see their provider more frequently, especially during the first two years of treatment or if their HIV viral load is not suppressed (i.e. very low or undetectable). Current guidelines say that people who take their medication every day and have had a suppressed viral load at every test for more than 2 years only need to have their lab tests done two times a year.

In addition to seeing your HIV care provider, you may need to see other health care practitioners, including dentists, nurses, case managers, social workers, psychiatrists/psychologists, pharmacists and medical specialists. This may mean juggling multiple appointments, but it is all part of staying healthy. You can help make this easier by preparing a plan for yourself.

Before Your Visit

For many people living with HIV, appointments with their HIV care provider become a routine part of their life. These tips may help you better prepare for your visits to your HIV care provider and get more out of them:

  • Start with a list or a notebook. Write down any questions you have before you go. (The Department of Veterans Affairs offers a useful list of sample questions you can bring with you.)
  • Make a list of your health and life goals so that you can talk about them with your HIV provider and how she/he can help you reach them.
  • Make a list of any symptoms or problems you are experiencing that you want to talk to your provider about.
  • Bring a list of all the HIV and non-HIV medications that you are taking (or the medications themselves), including over-the-counter medications, vitamins, or supplements. Include a list of any HIV medications you may have taken in the past and any problems you had when taking them.
  • Bring along a copy of your medical records if you are seeing a new provider who does not already have them. You have the right to access your medical records and having copies of your records can help you keep track of your lab results, prescriptions, and other health information. It can also help your new provider have a better understanding of your health history. The best way to do this is by using a global, portable personal health record like the one you will maintain here at HealthLynked.
  • Be prepared to talk about any changes in your living situation, relationships, insurance, or employment that may affect your ability to keep up with your HIV appointments and treatment or to take care of yourself. Your provider may be able to connect you with resources or services that may assist you.
  • Be on time. Most healthcare providers have full appointment schedules—if you are late, you throw the schedule off for everyone who comes after you. If you are late, there is a chance your provider will not be able to see you the same day.

During Your Visit

  • If your provider wants to run some lab tests during your visit, make sure you understand what the lab tests are for and what your provider will do with the results. If you don’t understand, ask your provider to explain it in everyday terms. Typically, you will be asked to give a sample (blood, urine) during your visit and your provider’s office will call you with your results in a few days. Keep track of your results and call your provider back if you have any questions.
  • Be honest. Your provider isn’t there to judge you, but to make decisions with you based on your particular circumstances. Talk about any HIV medication doses you have missed. Tell your provider about your sexual or alcohol/drug use history. These behaviors can put you at risk of developing drug resistance and getting other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) as well as hepatitis. Your provider will work with you to develop strategies to keep you as healthy as possible.
  • Describe any side effects you may be having from your HIV medications. Your provider will want to know how the HIV medications are affecting your body in order to work with you to solve any problems and find the right combination of medications for you.
  • Ask your provider about your next visit and what you should bring to that appointment.
  • Ask for a list of your upcoming appointments when you check out. Work with your case manager, if you have one, to develop a system to help you remember your appointments, such as a calendar, app, or text/e-mail reminders.

Asking Questions and Solving Problems

It’s important for you to be an active participant in your own health care and it’s your right to ask questions. You may need to direct your questions to different people, depending on what you need/want to know:

HIV care providers (doctors, nurse practitioners, physician assistants) can answer specific questions about a wide range of issues that affect your health. They can also help you find resources and solutions to problems you may have that affect your health, including:

  • Your prognosis (how your HIV disease is affecting your body)
  • How to manage any symptoms you may be experiencing
  • Medication issues, including medication changes, new medications, and how the HIV medications may interact with other medications you take.
  • Sexual health issues, including questions about any sexual symptoms you may be having, and how you can prevent or treat STIs, and how you can prevent transmitting HIV to your partner(s).
  • Family planning considerations, including your goals; birth control options for you and/or your partner, if relevant; your options for having children should you wish to do so; and, if you are an HIV-positive woman who is pregnant or considering getting pregnant, how you can reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to your baby
  • Substance use issues, including how alcohol/drug use can affect your HIV treatment and overall health, and whether you should be referred for substance abuse treatment
  • Mental health issues, including questions about any mental health symptoms you may be having, and whether you should be referred for mental health treatment
  • Referrals for other medical issues you may be experiencing
  • The meaning of lab test results
  • The need for surgical procedures, if relevant
  • Medication adherence strategies (tips for keeping up with your medication and ensuring you take it as scheduled and exactly as prescribed)
  • Any clinical trials or research studies that may be relevant for you
  • Information about resources and services that can help you with issues or challenges you may be having that affect your health.

Nurses and case managers often have more time to answer questions about what you discuss with your provider and to help identify solutions to problems that are affecting your health, particularly around:

  • Understanding your HIV treatment plan, including how many pills of each medicine you should take; when to take each medicine; how to take each medicine (for example, with or without food); and how to store each medicine
  • Understanding possible side effects from your HIV medication and what you should do if you experience them
  • Challenges you may have in taking your medications and/or keeping your medical appointments, and strategies for overcoming these challenges
  • Resources to help you better understand lab reports, tests, and procedures
  • Mental health and/or substance abuse treatment, housing assistance, food assistance, and other resources that exist in your community
  • Insurance and pharmacy benefits, and other aspects of paying for care
  • Understanding other medical conditions you may have
  • How to quit smoking and resources that are available to assist you
  • Information about resources and services that can help you with issues or challenges you may be having that affect your health.

If you are HIV positive, attending your medical appointments is one of the most important things you can do to ensure your HIV is optimally managed. Make sure you are ready for your appointments with HealthLynked.  Using our novel healthcare ecosystem, you can collate your medical information in one place and Connect there with the physicians who care for you.

Ready to get Lynked?  Go to HealthLynked.com today to sign up for Free!

Adapted from:

HIV.org

CDC.foc

Aidsinfo.NIH.gov

Insight into Vitiligo: The Truth and Treatment of Leucoderma

Today, June 25th, marks World Vitiligo Day, aimed at raising awareness about the disease.  Vitiligo affects roughly 100 million people worldwide and almost 2 million in the US. It’s not contagious or fatal, but scientists are unsure of what causes it.

What is Vitiligo

Vitiligo is a patchy loss of skin coloring (pigmentation). The average age of onset of vitiligo is in the mid-twenties, but it can appear at any age.  95 percent of people with vitiligo have been diagnosed before reaching age forty. It tends to progress over time, with larger areas of the skin losing pigment. Some people with vitiligo also have patches of pigment loss affecting the hair on their scalp or body.

Myths VS Facts

Myth 1: Vitiligo is an outcome of the wrong combination of foods, for instance, milk consumption shortly after eating fish can bring on the disorder.

Fact: Vitiligo has no apparent link with the diet. It is irrational to deprive patients of healthy foods they enjoy in the hope of declining the possibility of the disease.

Myth 2: Vitiligo is a kind of leprosy and is communicable.

Fact: Though often referred to those who do not understand the disease as “white leprosy”, vitiligo is in no way linked to leprosy. It is not infectious or contagious and, hence, cannot pass on from one person to another.

Myth 3: Vitiligo is connected to serious skin diseases, such as skin cancer and albinism.

Fact: There are clear dissimilarities among each of these syndromes, and not of them are linked to Vitiligo.

Myth 4:  There are no effective treatments for vitiligo.

Fact: Medications like steroids, Ultraviolet A, immunomodulator drugs and the newer narrowband Ultraviolet B are accessible, along with several surgical options.

Types of Vitiligo

Generalized vitiligo, also called non-segmental vitiligo, is the most common form.  It involves loss of pigment (depigmentation) in patches of skin all over the body. Depigmentation typically occurs on the face, neck, and scalp, and around body openings such as the mouth and genitals. Sometimes pigment is lost in mucous membranes, such as the lips. Loss of pigmentation is also frequently seen in areas that tend to experience rubbing, impact, or other trauma, such as the hands, arms, and places where bones are close to the skin surface (bony prominences).

Segmental vitiligo is associated with smaller patches of depigmented skin that appear on one side of the body in a limited area; this occurs in about 10 percent of affected individuals.

What causes Vitiligo?

Vitiligo is generally considered to be an autoimmune disorder. Autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system attacks the body’s own tissues and organs. In people with vitiligo the immune system appears to attack the pigment cells (melanocytes) in the skin. About 15 to 25 percent of people with vitiligo are also affected by at least one other autoimmune disorder, particularly autoimmune thyroid disease, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, psoriasis, pernicious anemia, Addison disease, or systemic lupus erythematosus.

In the absence of other autoimmune conditions, vitiligo does not affect general health or physical functioning. However, concerns about appearance and ethnic identity are significant issues for many affected individuals.

Some researchers think that the melanocytes destroy themselves. Others think that a single event such as sunburn or emotional distress can trigger vitiligo. But these events have not been proven to cause vitiligo.

Role of Genetic Changes

Variations in over 30 genes, occurring in different combinations, have been associated with an increased risk of developing vitiligo. Two of these genes are NLRP1 and PTPN22.

The NLRP1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in the immune system, helping to regulate the process of inflammation. Inflammation occurs when the immune system sends signaling molecules and white blood cells to a site of injury or disease to fight microbial invaders and facilitate tissue repair. The body then stops (inhibits) the inflammatory response to prevent damage to its own cells and tissues.

The PTPN22 gene provides instructions for making a protein involved in signaling that helps control the activity of immune system cells called T cells. T cells identify foreign substances and defend the body against infection.

The variations in the NLRP1 and PTPN22 genes that are associated with an increased risk of developing vitiligo likely affect the activity of the NLRP1 and PTPN22 proteins, making it more difficult for the body to control inflammation and prevent the immune system from attacking its own tissues.

Studies indicate that variations in a number of other genes also affect the risk of vitiligo. Many of these genes are also involved in immune system function or melanocyte biology, and variations in each likely make only a small contribution to vitiligo risk. Some of the gene changes associated with an increased risk of vitiligo have also been associated with an increased risk of other autoimmune conditions.

It is unclear what specific circumstances trigger the immune system to attack melanocytes in the skin. Research suggests that the immune system of affected individuals may react abnormally to melanocytes that are stressed by factors such as chemicals or ultraviolet radiation. In addition, the melanocytes of people with vitiligo may be more susceptible to stress than those of the general population and therefore may be more likely to be attacked by the immune system. The condition probably results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors, most of which have not been identified.

What are the symptoms of Vitiligo?

White patches on the skin are the main sign of vitiligo. These patches are more common in areas where the skin is exposed to the sun. The patches may be on the hands, feet, arms, face, and lips. Other common areas for white patches are:

  • The armpits and groin (where the leg meets the body)
  • Around the mouth
  • Eyes
  • Nostrils
  • Navel
  • Genitals
  • Rectal areas.

People with vitiligo often have hair that turns gray early. Those with dark skin may notice a loss of color inside their mouths.

Will the white patches spread?

There is no way to tell if vitiligo will spread. For some people, the white patches do not spread. But often the white patches will spread to other areas of the body. For some people, vitiligo spreads slowly, over many years. For other people, spreading occurs quickly. Some people have reported more white patches after physical or emotional stress.

How is vitiligo diagnosed?

A doctor will use family and medical history, physical exam, and tests to diagnose vitiligo. The doctor may ask questions such as:

  • Do you have family members with vitiligo?
  • Do you or family members have any autoimmune diseases?
  • Did you have a rash, sunburn, or other skin problem before the white patches appeared?
  • Did you have some type of stress or physical illness?
  • Did your hair turn gray before age 35?
  • Are you sensitive to the sun?

A physical exam will be completed to rule out other medical problems.

Tests might include:

  • Taking a small sample (biopsy) of the affected skin to be examined
  • Blood tests
  • An eye exam.

How is vitiligo treated?

Treatment may help make the skin look more even. The choice of treatment depends on:

  • The number of white patches
  • How widespread the patches are
  • The treatment the person prefers to use.

Some treatments are not right for everyone. Many treatments can have unwanted side effects. Treatments can take a long time, and sometimes they don’t work.

Current treatment options for vitiligo include medical, surgical, and other treatments. Most are aimed at restoring color to the white patches of skin.

Medical treatments include:
  • Medicines (such as creams) that you put on the skin
  • Medicines that you take by mouth
  • A treatment that uses medicine plus ultraviolet A (UVA) light (PUVA)
  • Removing the color from other areas so they match the white patches.
Surgical treatments include:
  • Skin grafts from a person’s own tissues. The doctor takes skin from one area of a patient’s body and attaches it to another area. This is sometimes used for people with small patches of vitiligo.
  • Tattooing small areas of skin.
Other treatments include:
  • Sunscreens
  • Cosmetics, such as makeup or dye, to cover the white patches
  • Counseling and support.

Complications

Vitiligo does not develop into other diseases, but people with the condition are more likely to experience:

  • painful sunburn
  • hearing loss
  • changes to vision and tear production

Overcoming social challenges

If the skin patches are visible, the social stigma of vitiligo can be difficult to cope with. Embarrassment can lead to problems with self-esteem, and in some cases, anxiety and depression can result.  75% of those with vitiligo report having social anxiety in some from as a result of the changes to their skin.

People with darker skin are more likely to experience difficulties, because the contrast is greater. In some countries, vitiligo is known as “white leprosy.”

Increasing awareness about vitiligo, for example, by talking to friends about it, can help people with the condition to overcome these difficulties. Connecting with others who have vitiligo may also help.

Anyone with this condition who experiences symptoms of anxiety and depression should ask their dermatologist to recommend someone who can help.

Use HealthLynked to build the right team of professionals who know what you are going through and will truly help you in every way possible. It is a first of its kind medical network built as a social ecosystem with a higher purpose – improving healthcare. Go to HealthLynked.com to learn more, sign up for free, connect with your doctor, find a new doctor, and securely store and share your health information. Download our HealthLynked app available on Apple and Android devices.

Sources:

NIH.org

Medical News Today.com

Five [PLUS] Senses Working Overtime. Are You Tuned In…?

Today is Celebration of the Senses Day – a time to consider your amazing sensory abilities and how they interrelate. We all learn as children humans have five basic senses: touch, sight, hearing, smell and taste. Science has done a fantastic job describing the organs associated with each, how they send information to the brain to help us understand and perceive the world around us, and has gone even further to uncover how they uniquely cross-talk for heightened awareness.

Touch

Touch is thought to be the first sense humans develop, according to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Touch consists of several distinct sensations communicated to the brain through specialized neurons in the skin. Pressure, temperature, light touch, vibration, pain and other sensations are all part of the touch sense and are all attributed to different receptors in the skin.

Touch isn’t just a sense used to interact with the world; it also seems to be very important to a human’s well-being. For example, touch has been found to convey compassion from one human to another.

Touch can also influence how humans make decisions. Texture can be associated with abstract concepts, and touching something with a texture can influence the decisions a person makes, according to six studies by psychologists at Harvard University and Yale University, published in the June 24, 2010, issue of the journal Science.

“Those tactile sensations are not just changing general orientation or putting people in a good mood,” said Joshua Ackerman, an assistant professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. “They have a specific tie to certain abstract meanings.”

Sight

Sight, or perceiving things through the eyes, is a complex process. First, light reflects off an object to the eye. The transparent outer layer of the eye – the cornea – bends the light that passes through the hole of the pupil. The iris (the colored part of the eye) works like the shutter of a camera, retracting to shut out light or opening wider to let in more light.

The cornea focuses most of the light. Then, it passes through the lens, which continues to focus the light.  The lens of the eye then bends the light and focuses it on the retina, which is full of nerve cells. These cells are shaped like rods and cones and are named for their shapes. Cones translate light into colors, central vision and details. The rods translate light into peripheral vision and motion. Rods also give humans vision when there is limited light available, like at night. The information translated from the light is sent as electrical impulses to the brain through the optic nerve.

People without sight may compensate with enhanced hearing, taste, touch and smell, according to numerous studies. Their memory and language skills may be better than those with sight, as well.

“Even in the case of being profoundly blind, the brain rewires itself in a manner to use the information at its disposal so that it can interact with the environment in a more effective manner.”  That’s according to Dr. Lotfi Merabet, senior author of a 2017 study and the director of the Laboratory for Visual Neuroplasticity at Schepens Eye Research Institute of Massachusetts Eye and Ear.

Hearing

This sense works via the complex labyrinth that is the human ear. Sound is funneled through the external ear and piped into the external auditory canal. Then, sound waves reach the tympanic membrane, or eardrum. This is a thin sheet of connective tissue that vibrates when sound waves strike it.

The vibrations travel to the middle ear. There, auditory ossicles — three tiny bones called the malleus (hammer), incus (anvil) and stapes (stirrup) — vibrate. The stapes bone, in turn, pushes a structure called the oval window in and out, sending vibrations to the organ of Corti.  This spiral organ is the receptor organ for hearing. Tiny hair cells in the organ of Corti translate the vibrations into electrical impulses. The impulses then travel to the brain via sensory nerves.

People retain their sense of balance because the Eustachian tube, or pharyngotympanic tube, in the middle ear equalizes the air pressure there with the air pressure in the atmosphere. The vestibular complex, in the inner ear, is also important for balance, because it contains receptors that regulate a sense of equilibrium. The inner ear is connected to the vestibulocochlear nerve, which carries sound and equilibrium information to the brain.

Smell

Humans may be able to smell over 1 trillion scents, according to researchers. They do this with the olfactory cleft, which is found on the roof of the nasal cavity, next to the “smelling” part of the brain – the olfactory bulb and fossa. Nerve endings in the olfactory cleft transmit scents to the brain, according to the American Rhinologic Society.

Dogs are known as great smellers, but research suggests humans are just as good as man’s best friend. Research published in the May 11, 2017, issue of the journal Science suggests humans can discriminate among 1 trillion different odors; it was once believed humans could discern only about 10,000 different smells.

“The fact is the sense of smell is just as good in humans as in other mammals, like rodents and dogs,” John McGann, a neuroscientist at Rutgers University-New Brunswick in New Jersey and the author of the new review, said in a statement. The Rutgers study backs up a previous study at the Rockefeller University in New York, whose findings were published in the March 2014 issue of the journal Science.

Humans have 400 smelling receptors. While this isn’t as many as animals that are super smellers have, the much more complicated human brain makes the difference.  In fact, poor smelling ability in people may be a symptom of a medical condition or aging. For example, the distorted or decreased ability to smell is a symptom of schizophrenia and depression. Old age can also lessen the ability to smell properly. More than 75 percent of people over the age of 80 years may have major olfactory impairment, according to a 2006 paper published by the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Taste

The gustatory sense is usually broken down into the perception of four different tastes: salty, sweet, sour and bitter. There is also a fifth taste, defined as umami or savory. There may be many other flavors not yet discovered. Also, spicy is not a taste. It is actually a pain signal, according to the National Library of Medicine (NLM).

The sense of taste aided in human evolution, according to the NLM, because taste helped people test the food they ate. A bitter or sour taste indicated that a plant might be poisonous or rotten. Something salty or sweet, however, often meant the food was rich in nutrients.

Taste is sensed in the taste buds. Adults have 2,000 to 4,000 taste buds. Most of them are on the tongue, but they also line the back of the throat, the epiglottis, the nasal cavity and the esophagus. Sensory cells on the buds form capsules shaped like flower buds or oranges. The tips of these capsules have pores that work like funnels with tiny taste hairs. Proteins on the hairs bind chemicals to the cells for tasting.

It is a myth that the tongue has specific zones for each flavor. The five tastes can be sensed on all parts of the tongue, although the sides are more sensitive than the middle. About half of the sensory cells in taste buds react to several of the five basic tastes. The cells differ in their level of sensitivity. Each has a specific palette of tastes with a fixed ranking, so some cells may be more sensitive to sweet, followed by bitter, sour and salty, while others have their own rankings. The full experience of a flavor is produced only after all of the information from various parts of the tongue is combined.

The other half of the sensory cells are specialized to react to only one taste. It’s their job to transmit information about the intensity — how salty or sweet something tastes.

Other factors help build the perception of taste in the brain. For example, the smell of the food greatly affects how the brain perceives the taste. Smells are sent to the mouth in a process called olfactory referral. This is why someone with a stuffy nose may have trouble tasting food properly. Texture, translated by the sense of touch, also contributes to taste, and recent studies even show color and shape can affect the way we perceive a properly attribute taste to a food.

The sense of space

In addition to the traditional big five, other senses help us translate a myriad of inputs into how we perceive and relate to the physical world.  One deals with how your brain understands where your body is in space. This sense is called proprioception.

Proprioception includes the sense of movement and position of our limbs and muscles. For example, proprioception enables a person to touch their finger to the tip of their nose, even with their eyes closed. It enables a person to climb steps without looking at each one. People with poor proprioception may be clumsy and uncoordinated.

Researchers at the NIH found that people who have particularly poor proprioception through mechanosensation — the ability to sense force, such as feeling when someone presses down on your skin — may have a mutated gene that is passed down from generation to generation. That comes from a September 2016 study in the New England Journal of Medicine. “The patient’s version of [the gene] PIEZO2 may not work, so their neurons cannot detect touch or limb movements,” said Alexander Chesler, a principal investigator at the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health and the lead author of the study.

Additional senses & variations

There are more-subtle senses that most people never really perceive. For example, there are neuron sensors that sense movement to control balance and the tilt of the head. Specific kinesthetic receptors exist for detecting stretching in muscles and tendons, helping people to keep track of their limbs. Other receptors detect levels of oxygen in certain arteries of the bloodstream.

While our five  basic sense seem to operate independently, as distinct modes of perceiving the world, in reality, they collaborate closely to enable the mind to better understand our surroundings. We can become keenly aware of this collaboration under special conditions.

In some cases, a sense may covertly influence another we think is dominant. When visual information clashes with that from sound, sensory crosstalk can cause what we see to alter what we hear. When one sense drops out, another can pick up the slack.  For instance, people who are blind can train their hearing to play double duty. Those who are both blind and deaf can train touch to step in—even to help them interpret speech.

Our senses must also regularly meet and greet in the brain to provide accurate impressions of the world. Our ability to perceive the emotions of others relies on combinations of cues from sounds, sights and even smells.  Perceptual systems, particularly smell, connect with memory and emotion centers to enable sensory cues to trigger feelings and recollections, and are incorporated within them.

The crosstalking of the senses provides some of the most magnificent material for interesting science, illusions, inventions and just plain art.  Here are a few of the best examples of the complex interactions – and extraordinary feats – of our cross-wired senses.

Calling to See

Bats and dolphins, among other animals, emit sounds into their surroundings —not to communicate with other bats and whales — but to “see” what is around them.  They read echoes of the sound waves, which bounce off objects, to identify and locate objects.

This sensory system is called echolocation. Although most of us can only imagine the pictures that form from sound, some sightless people have managed to master a form of echolocation. By uttering sounds and clicks, these individuals can use their ears to navigate. Some, such as Daniel Kish, have even taught others to use this form of human sonar. Kish once described human echolocation as “something like seeing the world in dim flashes of light.”

Fingers Do the Hearing 

People who are both deaf and blind are incredibly good at using other senses, such as touch, to navigate and understand the world. Some use the Tadoma Speechreading Method to perceive speech by touching the lips of another person as they talk. First taught in the 1920s, lip-reading by touch was a popular form of communication among the deafblind. Helen Keller was one of its early adopters.

If taught early in development, the Tadoma Method can help a deaf-blind child learn to speak as well as to understand others. Those who lose their sight and hearing later in life can use it to read lips.

But because the method is extremely difficult and time consuming to learn, by the 1950s it began to lose ground to American Sign Language as the dominant teaching method. Today, only about 50 people in the world still use of the Tadoma Method.

Still, In ASL, the deaf-blind place their hands over another signer’s hands and follow the motions with their fingers—which is easier because the movements are far less subtle.

Beep Baseball

Blind baseball seems almost impossible to even imagine, but since 1975, when a few blind Minnesotans invented “beep baseball”, those who lack sight have taken part in America’s favorite pastime. Thanks to a one-pound beeping oversized softball and some tweaks to the game, players can hit a home run without ever seeing the ball. They use the sound the ball emits to orient themselves, make contact using a bat and to field.  Special bases make it possible to round the diamond. They might be particularly well-suited to this form of the game, as previous research suggests that blind individuals can more easily localize sounds than sighted people can.

Then there is synesthesia

For a few individuals with a condition called synesthesia, the senses collide dramatically and uniquely to form a kaleidoscope world in which chicken tastes like stars, a symphony smells of fresh baked bread or words are bathed in red, green or purple.

People with synesthesia have a particularly curious cross wiring of the senses in which activating one sense spontaneously triggers another. They see colors when they hear noises, associate particular personalities with days of the week, or hear sounds when they see moving dots.

Synesthesia is thought to be genetic, and recent research even suggests it may confer an evolutionary advantage.  Most synesthetes don’t notice anything strange about the way they perceive their environments until it is brought to their attention.

Given that, at any moment in time, we are bombarded by such a diverse combination of sensory experiences, our appreciation of the individual senses can become somewhat muddled. Our taste experience is affected by the smell, texture and temperature of our food. Similarly, our hearing is said to decrease after overeating, and our sight is affected by noises around us. Sight can also be hampered after eating fatty foods.

Here’s another interesting snippet – if a sad, depressed person tells you their world is dull and grey, and flowers have lost their smell, they’re not just speaking metaphorically. Research shows sensory perception can actually be diminished in depressed individuals.  So focussing on a renewed appreciation of your senses can actually help one get out of an emotional rut.

Five senses? More than ten!

The categorization of our five primary senses (sight, smell, hearing, taste and touch) is attributed to Aristotle. While this basic list is still valid, humans have a number of additional ‘sensory abilities’ not covered above. These secondary senses include:

  • Sense of balance and acceleration– the ability to sense body movement, direction and acceleration, and to maintain balance and equilibrium.
  • Temperature sense– the ability to sense heat and the absence of heat (cold).
  • Sense of Pain– the sense of pain was previously believed to be an overloading of pressure receptors, but it has since been identified as a distinct phenomenon that intertwines with the other senses, including touch.
  • Sense of Time– the ability to perceive the passage of time, both short passages as well as longer time cycles.

We are gifted with a complex system of basic and intertwined senses designed to help us take it all in….If any of these seem a little “off” for you, consider seeing a physician who can help you with a tune up. To find a healthcare professional, use HealthLynked. It is a first of its kind medical network built as a social ecosystem with a higher purpose – improving healthcare. Go to HealthLynked.com to learn more, sign up for free, connect with your doctor, find a new doctor, and securely store and share your health information. Download our HealthLynked app available on Apple and Android devices.

Sources:

livescience.com

idahoptv.org

14 Injections of Fact and Folklore Surrounding the first “Killed” Vaccine

Just 60 years ago, polio was one of the most feared killers in the U.S.

Every year, as the warmer months approached, panic over polio intensified. Late summer was dubbed “polio season.” Public swimming pools were shut down. Movie theaters urged patrons not to sit too close together to avoid spreading the disease. Insurance companies started selling polio insurance for newborns.

The fear was well grounded. By the 1950s, polio had become one of the most serious communicable diseases among children in the United States. In 1952 alone, nearly 60,000 children were infected with the virus; thousands were paralyzed, and more than 3,000 died. Hospitals set up special units with iron lung machines to keep polio victims alive.

Then in 1955, the U.S. began widespread vaccinations. By 1979, the virus had been completely eliminated across the country. Now polio is on the verge of being eliminated from the world. The virus remains endemic in only two parts of the globe: northern Nigeria and the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan.

On this day, June 23rd, 1995, the creator of the first ever “killed” vaccine, which started the US down the path of eliminating the disease, died. Dr. Jonas Salk was 80 years old. Here are a few facts about the medical genius and the disease he and his colleagues worked to eradicate.

Although polio was the most feared disease of the 20th century, it was hardly the top killer.
The first major polio epidemic in the United States hit Vermont in 1894 with 132 cases. A larger outbreak struck New York City in 1916, with more than 27,000 cases and 6,000 deaths. As the number of polio cases grew, the paralytic disease changed the way Americans looked at public health and disability.

Polio, while definitely on a meteoric rise in the 1950’s, was not the rampant killer it has been portrayed to be. During the 50s and 60s, 10 times as many children died in accidents and three times as many succumbed to cancer. Polio inspired such fear because it struck without warning, and researchers were unsure of how it spread from person to person. In the years following World War II, polls found the only thing Americans feared more than polio was nuclear war.

Salk was rejected by multiple laboratories after medical school.
After graduating from medical school at New York University and completing his residency training, Salk applied to laboratories to work in medical research. Rather than treat patients as a practicing physician, Salk hoped to work on the influenza vaccine, a research area he began studying in medical school.

Although he was rejected from multiple labs, perhaps due to quotas that discriminated against Jewish people, he didn’t get discouraged. “My attitude was always to keep open, to keep scanning. I think that’s how things work in nature. Many people are close-minded, rigid, and that’s not my inclination,” he revealed in his Academy of Achievement interview.

Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry Truman proved instrumental in the vaccine’s development.
A year after his nomination as a Democratic vice presidential candidate, rising political star Franklin D. Roosevelt contracted polio while vacationing at his summer home on Campobello Island in 1921. The disease left the legs of the 39-year-old future president permanently paralyzed. In 1938, five years after entering the White House, Roosevelt helped to create the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, later renamed the March of Dimes Foundation, which became the primary funding source for Salk’s vaccine trials. Employing “poster children” and enlisting the star power of celebrities from Mickey Rooney to Mickey Mouse, the grassroots organization run by Roosevelt’s former Wall Street law partner Basil O’Connor was raising more than $20 million per year by the late 1940s.

In 1946, President Harry Truman declared polio a threat to the United States and called on Americans to do everything possible to combat it. “The fight against infantile paralysis cannot be a local war,” Truman declared in a speech broadcast from the White House. “It must be nationwide. It must be total war in every city, town and village throughout the land. For only with a united front can we ever hope to win any war.”

Science initially failed
Early attempts to develop a vaccine ran into numerous hurdles. A vaccine tested on 10,000 children by two researchers at New York University provided no immunity and left nine children dead. Other vaccine trials used “volunteers” at mental institutions.

Salk challenged prevailing scientific orthodoxy in his vaccine development.
While most scientists believed that effective vaccines could only be developed with live viruses, Salk developed a “killed-virus” vaccine by growing samples of the virus and then deactivating them by adding formaldehyde so that they could no longer reproduce. By injecting the benign strains into the bloodstream, the vaccine tricked the immune system into manufacturing protective antibodies without the need to introduce a weakened form of the virus into healthy patients.

Many researchers, such as Polish-born virologist Albert Sabin, who was developing an oral “live-virus” polio vaccine, called Salk’s approach dangerous. Sabin even belittled Salk as “a mere kitchen chemist.” The hard-charging O’Connor, however, had grown impatient at the time-consuming process of developing a live-virus vaccine and put the resources of the March of Dimes behind Salk.

Since Sabin and Cincinnati Children’s Hospital couldn’t gain political support in the U.S. for what he viewed as his superior vaccine, he moved testing to the Soviet Union instead.

Salk tested the vaccine on himself and his family.
After successfully inoculating thousands of monkeys, Salk began the risky step of testing the vaccine on humans in 1952. In addition to administering the vaccine to children at two Pittsburgh-area institutions, Salk injected himself, his wife and his three sons in his kitchen after boiling the needles and syringes on his stovetop. Salk announced the success of the initial human tests to a national radio audience on March 26, 1953.

The clinical trial was the biggest public health experiment in American history.
On April 26, 1954, six-year-old Randy Kerr was injected with the Salk vaccine at the Franklin Sherman Elementary School in McLean, Virginia. By the end of June, an unprecedented 1.8 million people, including hundreds of thousands of schoolchildren, joined him in becoming “polio pioneers.” For the first time, researchers used the double-blind method, now standard, in which neither the patient nor person administering the inoculation knew if it was a vaccine or placebo. Although no one was certain that the vaccine was perfectly safe—in fact, Sabin argued it would cause more cases of polio than it would prevent—there was no shortage of volunteers.

Salk did not patent his vaccine.
On April 12, 1955, the day the Salk vaccine was declared “safe, effective and potent,” legendary CBS newsman Edward R. Morrow interviewed its creator and asked who owned the patent. “Well, the people, I would say,” said Salk in light of the millions of charitable donations raised by the March of Dimes that funded the vaccine’s research and field testing. “There is no patent. Could you patent the sun?” Lawyers for the foundation had investigated the possibility of patenting the vaccine but did not pursue it, in part because of Salk’s reluctance.

Although a tainted batch of the Salk vaccine killed 11 people, Americans continued vaccinating their children.
Just weeks after the Salk vaccine had been declared safe, more than 200 polio cases were traced to lots contaminated with virulent live polio strains manufactured by the Cutter Laboratories in Berkeley, California. Most taken ill became severely paralyzed. Eleven died. In the haste to rush the vaccine to the public, the federal government had not provided proper supervision of the major drug companies contracted by the March of Dimes to produce 9 million doses of vaccine for 1955. Although the United States surgeon general ordered all inoculations temporarily halted, Americans continued to vaccinate themselves and their children. Outside of the “Cutter Incident,” not a single case of polio attributed to the Salk vaccine was ever contracted in the United States.

A rival vaccine supplanted Salk’s in the 1960s.
Once Sabin’s oral vaccine finally became available in 1962, it quickly supplanted Salk’s injected vaccine because it was cheaper to produce and easier to administer. Ultimately, both vaccines produced by the bitter rivals nearly eradicated the disease from the planet. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there were only 416 reported cases of polio worldwide in 2013, mostly confined to a handful of Asian and African countries. Since Sabin’s live-virus vaccine, which is responsible for about a dozen cases of polio each year, is seen as the final obstacle to eliminating the disease in most of the world, the WHO has urged polio-free countries to return to Salk’s killed-virus vaccine.

Salk was the stepfather of Pablo Picasso’s Children
In 1970, Salk married Françoise Gilot, a French artist who had two children, Claude and Paloma, with Pablo Picasso. In an interview in 1980, Paloma remembered the fear people had of polio, and that as a child, she didn’t visit her father’s house in the South of France due to a polio outbreak. She also revealed that she got along well with her stepfather: “He’s very cute. He’s a wonderful person,” she said. After his death in 1995, Gilot continued her late husband’s legacy by working at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies.

Salk worked on cures for cancer and AIDS
After Salk developed the polio vaccine, he tried to develop vaccines for cancer, AIDS, and multiple sclerosis. Although he wasn’t ultimately successful, he did patent Remune, a vaccine for AIDS to delay the progression of HIV into AIDS. In 2001, six years after Salk died, Pfizer stopped funding clinical trials for Remune due to a lack of evidence that it worked.

Salk was much maligned by the medical community
At the University of Pittsburgh, Salk launched what was then the largest human trial in history and introduced new scientific rigor now used as the gold standard in development of new treatments and tests for pathology. When it was announced that his vaccine worked, Salk was hailed as a humanitarian hero. By 1957, new polio cases had fallen below 6,000.

While heads of state around the globe rushed to celebrate him, many in the medical community derided his efforts. According to Dr. Charlene Jacobs in a interview with the Oxford Press, this was for many reasons:

  1. He preferred the “killed” vaccine, which most in medicine feared would be too weak.
  2. He worked in secret and with a small team.
  3. They claimed he grabbed the limelight and failed to share credit with others.
  4. It appeared he pandered to the press, crossing an imaginary line medicine had set up between science and the media.

Salk won few awards for what is still considered one of the greatest medical breakthroughs
While nominated several times, he did not win the Nobel Peace prize, and he was blackballed from the Academy of Sciences. He won a great deal of social celebrity, for sure, but his insistence on using intuition as much as rigor left many wondering what he really was doing. His dismissal in actual scientific communities is attributed to envy by many who review the history of the time.

Over the years, polio was found to be a highly contagious disease that spread, not in movie theaters or swimming pools, but from contact with water or food contaminated from the stool of an infected person. Along with the vaccine, much was done to improve hygiene in the Americas, The U.S. recorded its last case of polio in 1979, among isolated Amish communities in several states. Then the effort to eradicate polio globally began in earnest. The Western Hemisphere reported its last case, in Peru, in 1991.

Both Salk’s and Sabin’s vaccines are still used today. Although Jonas Salk is credited with ending the scourge of polio because his killed-virus vaccine was first to market, Albert Sabin’s sweet-tasting and inexpensive oral vaccine continues to prevent the spread of poliomyelitis in remote corners of the world. While the later version, which requires just two drops in a child’s mouth, proved much easier to use in mass immunization campaigns, today, it is being marked as the final barrier to truly eliminating polio – it does occasionally infect patients. The complete return to Salk’s vaccine has been promoted by the World Health Organization (WHO) since 2000.

Advances in medicine sometimes come from great intuition complimented with heavy doses of experience and meaningful development. These three make a powerful elixir. HealthLynked could be that kind of breakthrough – a good mix of real world wisdom, a touch of intuition and a love of professional rigor.

To find a healthcare professional, use HealthLynked. It is a first of its kind medical network built as a social ecosystem with a higher purpose – improving healthcare. Go to HealthLynked.com to learn more, sign up for free, connect with your doctor, find a new doctor, and securely store and share your health information. Download our HealthLynked app available on Apple and Android devices.

sources:

npr.org

pbs.org

Nytimes.com

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The Biggest Lie Ever Told? Futurism and Medicine

Just  four centuries ago, most still believed the earth was the the center of the universe. At least, the major governing bodies did…or wanted the populace to…. And, on this day, 385 years ago, the Inquisition forced Galileo Galilei to say he was wrong — that the Earth did not revolve around the sun.

Galileo had made the proclamation in his book Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, and whether he really believed his words that summer day is debatable. Legend has it, after he recanted his views, Galileo muttered, “And yet it moves.”

Many people believe Galileo was hounded by the church for almost two decades, that he openly maintained a belief in heliocentrism, and that he was only spared torture and death because his powerful friends intervened on his behalf. An examination of the fine details of Galileo’s conflict with church leaders does not necessarily bear that out, according to UCLA English department’s distinguished research professor, Henry Kelly.

“We can only guess at what he really believed,” said Kelly in an article published in 2016. His research undertook a thorough examination of the judicial procedure used by the church in its investigation of Galileo. “Galileo was clearly stretching the truth when he maintained at his trial in 1633 that after 1616 he had never considered heliocentrism to be possible. Admitting otherwise would have increased the penance he was given, but would not have endangered his life, since he agreed to renounce the heresy — and in fact it would have spared him even the threat of torture.”

When first summoned by the Roman Inquisition years before, in 1616, Galileo was not questioned but merely warned not to espouse heliocentrism. In the same year, the church banned Nicholas Copernicus’ book “On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres,” published in 1543.  This was one of the first major scientific works detailing a theory the Earth revolved around the sun. After a few minor edits, making sure that the sun theory was presented as purely hypothetical, it was allowed again in 1620 with the blessing of the church.

Sixteen years after his first encounter with the church, Galileo published his Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems in 1632, and the pope, Urban VIII, ordered another investigation against him. This time, he was prosecuted, following the usual methods of the Roman Inquisition.

The atmosphere in Italy at the time Galileo was writing his book was tense. The Inquisition was at peak intensity, and even more significantly, the bubonic plague was sweeping the country. Travel and communication were extremely difficult, creating an infectious sense of fear in the population.

Before Dialogue was published, Galileo was favored by the Church, even earning a pension from the pope; but officials were angered by the book’s content. The plot featured three characters – a simpleton, a student and a sage – who debated the structure of the solar system. The simpleton supported an Earth-centered view of the solar system, was subsequently proven wrong and ridiculed by the other characters. This was considered to be heresy as it ran contrary to the modern views of the Church. For Rome, the earth, and Rome itself, was at the center of everything. The book undermined contemporary ideas about the structure of the universe and the placement of heaven and hell.

“It made the universe physical,” says David DeVorkin, curator at the Air and Space Museum. “Then, people had to ask, ‘where in the world is heaven?’” In addition, Dialogue was a public offense to a number of officials who believed the character of the simpleton was, in part, a representation of themselves.“The real issue was the nature…that seemed to lampoon some sensitive personalities who were either on the Inquisition or were advisors or patrons or something,” DeVorkin said. “They did not want to be made out as fools.”

First, on April 12, 1633, before any charges were laid against him, Galileo was forced to testify about his beliefs under oath in hopes of obtaining a confession. This had long been a standard practice in heresy proceedings, even though it was a violation of the canonical law of inquisitorial due process. However, the interrogation was not successful – Galileo admitted no wrongdoing.

The cardinal inquisitors realized the case against Galileo would be very weak without an admission of guilt, so a plea bargain was arranged. He was told, if he admitted to having gone too far in his treatment of heliocentrism, he would be let off with a light punishment. Galileo agreed and confessed he had given stronger arguments to the heliocentric proponent in his dialogue than to the geocentric champion. He insisted he did not do so because he believed in heliocentrism. Rather, he claimed he was simply showing off his debating skills.

After his formal trial, which concluded on June 22nd of that year, Galileo was convicted of a “strong suspicion of heresy,” a lesser charge than actual heresy. “In sum, the 1616 event was not the beginning of a 17-year-long trial, as is often said, but a non-trial,” Kelly said. “Galileo’s actual trial time lasted for only a fraction of a single day, with no fanfare at all.”

Kelly also noted the Inquisition practice of the time, in light of Galileo’s guilty plea, which denied actual belief in the heresy, triggered another automatic examination of his private beliefs under torture. This was a new procedure adopted by the church around the turn of the 17th century. However, the pope decreed the interrogation should stop short at the mere threat. This was a routine kind of limitation for people of advanced age and ill health, like Galileo, and some say it should not be attributed to the influence of the scientist’s supporters.

Ultimately, Galieo’s book was banned, and he was sentenced to a light regimen of penance and imprisonment at the discretion of church inquisitors. After one day in prison, his punishment was commuted to “villa arrest” for the rest of his life. He died in 1642. In his final years, while most say Galileo insisted on the truth of the heliocentric solar system, Kelly estimates, “He would have been liable to receive an automatic death sentence.”

For its part, the church maintained efforts to ensure their version of scientific beliefs prevailed. “The most unusual aspect of the proceedings was that the sentence was ordered to be widely publicized in scientific circles,” Kelly said. “The cardinals asserted Galileo had always been orthodox in his belief concerning the cosmos and had never believed in or affirmed the heliocentric heresy.”

Today, he is celebrated as one of the world’s most disruptive scientists. Galileo’s assertion that the planets revolved around the sun, in addition to his myriad other contributions to physics and astronomy, became integral, pivotal portions of the evolution of how we view the universe. Using his own telescope design, he collected and cobbled together mountains of evidence supporting the Copernicun Revolution. “He really was one of the first modern scientists,” DeVorkin said. “He added rigorous observation to the scientific toolkit. He also added the earliest concepts of relativity and theories of infinity.”

If you have read this far, you are likely wondering why on earth this article is even on a healthcare website blog. Two reasons, really. It points to how not too distant resistance to change in strongly held beliefs, even in light of ever increasing evidence, can hold back progress; and to the importance of innovating passionately. Both of these are critical to making breakthroughs in medicine.

We can’t claim to be putting our lives on the line for constant improvement and welcome Inquisition into what we are doing. Still, every day, we at HealthLynked place getting better, each day, for you, at the center of how we operate.

And we believe you, the patient and your care team, are the center of healthcare. Many are starting to agree. We certainly aren’t Galileo and Copernicus, here, but we are working really hard to make it possible for patients to take control of their medical information in ways never before possible so they may truly collaborate to improve healthcare.

Patient-centric medicine is at the center of want we do. We and all the physicians in the HealthLynked network want to revolve around you.

To find a healthcare professional, use HealthLynked. It is a first of its kind medical network built as a social ecosystem with a higher purpose – improving healthcare. Go to HealthLynked.com to learn more, sign up for free, connect with your doctor, find a new doctor, and securely store and share your health information. Download our HealthLynked app available on Apple and Android devices.

Sources:

http://newsroom.ucla.edu/releases/the-truth-about-galileo-and-his-conflict-with-the-catholic-church

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/378-years-ago-today-galileo-forced-to-recant-18323485/

yoga can help to manage metabolic syndrome

How yoga can help to manage metabolic syndrome

Published
People who practice yoga — who are also known, at least in the Western world, as “yogis” — always rave about how yoga could benefit the body and mind. But what does the science say? A new study investigates, focusing on how yoga affects people with metabolic syndrome.

Medical News Today has been reporting on several studies showcasing the variety of ways in which yoga might benefit our health.

For instance, some studies have suggested that yoga boosts brain health and cognition, as well as improves thyroid problems and relieves the symptoms of depression.

It has also been suggested that practicing yoga can help men to enlarge their prostate or even overcome erectile dysfunction, as well as help those with diabetes to manage their symptoms.

So, it seems that yoga is good for almost everything. That being said, most of the above-mentioned studies are observational — meaning they cannot draw any conclusions about causality — and few studies have looked at the mechanisms that may have underlied the findings.

But a new study — which has been published in the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports and led by Dr. Parco M. Siu, from the University of Hong Kong in China — investigated the effect of yoga on cardiometabolic health.

The results not only found that it benefits people with metabolic syndrome, but they also revealed the mechanisms behind such benefits.

Yoga decreases inflammatory response

Metabolic syndrome is a condition frequently associated with type 2 diabetes and heart disease. In the United States, it is estimated that approximately 34 percent of the adult population live with the condition.

Dr. Siu and his colleagues previously conducted research that found lower blood pressure and a smaller waist circumference among those who undertook yoga for 1 year. Therefore, in the new study, the researchers wanted to examine the effect of 1 year of yoga in people with metabolic syndrome.

“Participants in the control group were not given any intervention but were contacted monthly to monitor their health status,” write the researchers, whereas, “Participants in the yoga group underwent a yoga training program with three 1-hour yoga sessions weekly for 1 year.”

The scientists also monitored the patients’ sera for so-called adipokines — or signaling proteins that are released by the fat tissue, telling the immune system to release either an inflammatory or anti-inflammatory response.

The study authors summarize their findings, saying, “[The] results demonstrated that 1-year yoga training decreased proinflammatory adipokines and increased anti-inflammatory adi- pokine in adults with [metabolic syndrome] and high-normal blood pressure.”

“These findings support the beneficial role of yoga in managing [metabolic syndrome] by favorably modulating adipokines,” add the researchers.

The results of the study suggest that yoga could be a worthwhile lifestyle intervention that could decrease inflammation and help people with metabolic syndrome to manage their symptoms.

Dr. Siu also comments on the study’s results, saying, “These findings help to reveal the response of adipokines to long-term yoga exercise, which underpins the importance of regular exercise to human health.”

To find a healthcare professional, use HealthLynked. It is a first of its kind medical network built as a social ecosystem with a higher purpose – improving healthcare. Go to HealthLynked.com to learn more, sign up for free, connect with your doctor, find a new doctor, and securely store and share your health information. Download our HealthLynked app available on Apple and Android devices.