For many years, doctors have known that screening for certain cancers saves lives. Breast cancer and prostate cancer are two examples. Now you can add lung cancer to that list. The National Lung Screening Trial results show screening people at high risk of lung cancer with CT scans lives. To learn more, visit http://mayocl.in/2xJdaq0
Forty years ago Army Staff Sgt. Walt Myers was exposed to the herbicide Agent Orange in Vietnam. Now he suffers profound muscle weakness in his legs. He was facing the possibility of spending the rest of his life in a wheelchair. But thanks to a special knee brace developed at Mayo Clinic, Myers is walking tall.
Learn more about the new Mayo Clinic W. Hall Wendel Jr. Musculoskeletal Center by clicking here: http://www.mayoclinic.org/musculoskeletal-center-rst/
A diagnosis of pancreatic cancer can be devastating news. It is often very aggressive and tough to treat. But research offers great hope for patients in terms of early diagnosis and better treatments. Here’s the story of one woman, a patient at Mayo Clinic, who is winning her battle with pancreatic cancer.
Mayo Clinic cardiologist Fred Kusumoto, M.D., discusses cryoablation for treatment of atrial arrhythmia. To learn more or to request an appointment, please visit http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/atrial-fibrillation/home/ovc-20164923?mc_id=global&utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=sm&utm_content=dysrhythmiaheart&utm_campaign=mayoclinic&geo=global&placementsite=enterprise&cauid=103944. Atrial fibrillation is an irregular heart rate that can increase the risk of other heart-related complications. Symptoms of atrial fibrillation include dizziness, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Atrial fibrillation also increased the risk of stroke. A new treatment used at Mayo Clinic called cryoablation can aid in the treatment of atrial fibrillation. During the procedure a catheter is inserted into the area of the heart with the arrhythmia and a balloon is deployed freezing the area causing the atrial fibrillation.
Don’t worry — you’re just tired and out of sorts after having your baby. But the chest pain experienced by the woman you’re about to meet was much more than a difficult recovery. She had a heart attack when a rare and deadly condition stopped blood flow to her heart. The same thing happened to another woman. After sharing their stories on social networking sites they found more women with the same problem. That’s when they contacted Mayo Clinic to convince cardiologists to use the information they gathered on the internet to research this condition.
A spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) (occasionally coronary artery dissection)
is a rare, sometimes fatal traumatic condition, with eighty percent of cases affecting women. One of the coronary arteries develops a tear, causing blood to flow between the layers which forces them apart. Studies of the disease place the mortality rate at around 70%.
SCAD is a primary cause of myocardial infarction (MI) in young, fit, healthy women (and some men) with no obvious risk factors. These can often occur during late pregnancy, postpartum and peri-menopausal periods.
Signs and symptoms
The symptoms are often very similar to those of myocardial infarction (heart attack), with the most common being persistent chest pain.
There is evidence to suggest that a major cause of spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is related to female hormone levels, as most cases appear to arise in pre-menopausal women, although there is evidence that the condition can have various triggers. Other underlying conditions such as hypertension, recent delivery of a baby, fibromuscular dysplasia and connective-tissue disorders (e.g., Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome) may occasionally result in SCAD. There is also a possibility that vigorous exercise can be a trigger. However, many cases have no obvious cause.
Coronary artery dissection results from a tear in the inner layer of the artery, the tunica intima. This allows blood to penetrate and cause an intramural hematoma in the central layer, the tunica media, and a restriction in the size of the lumen, resulting in reduced blood flow which in turn causes myocardial infarction and can later cause sudden cardiac death.
A selective coronary angiogram is the most common method to diagnose the condition, although it is sometimes not recognised until after death.Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is also used as it is able to more easily differentiate the condition from atherosclerotic disease.
Treatment is varied depending upon the nature of the case. In asymptomatic and hemodynamically stable patients it may be appropriate to maintain a conservative strategy, especially if coronarography demonstrates adequate coronary flow: in this situation spontaneous healing is usually the most probable evolution. In severe cases, coronary artery bypass surgery is performed to redirect blood flow around the affected area. Drug-eluting stents and thrombolytic drug therapy are less invasive options for less severe cases. However PCI for spontaneous coronary artery dissection is associated with high rates of technical failure, so in many case a strategy of conservative management may be preferable.
The condition is often fatal and is mostly recognized at postmortem examination in young victims of sudden death.
The prevalence of spontaneous coronary dissection varies from about 1% to 4% of all coronarography. About eighty percent of cases are in women, with an average age of around 40.
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) was first described in the year 1931, at postmortem examination, in a 42 year old woman.
Wheat is the grain on which Western civilization was built. It’s been used for thousands of years as the foundation of our diet. But 1 out of 100 Americans has a condition called celiac disease, which is an intolerance to wheat, barley and rye. Its symptoms can be subtle, but if you don’t stick to a gluten-free diet you could be damaging your body and not even know it. More from Mayo Clinic.
What are the symptoms of low testosterone?
The hormone has many important functions, including:
- the development of the bones and muscles
- the deepening of the voice, hair growth, and other factors related to appearance
- the production of sperm
Testosterone production can slow as a person ages, and many older men have symptoms of low testosterone.
The American Urology Association define low testosterone as less than 300 nanograms (ng) of the hormone per deciliter (dl) of blood. They also reported that about 2 in every 100 men have low testosterone.
Twelve signs and symptoms
Below are common signs and symptoms of low testosterone in males. Females may also experience some of the following.
1. Problems with erections
Low testosterone may cause fatigue and mood changes.
Low testosterone can make it difficult to get or maintain erections.
Testosterone stimulates the penile tissues to produce nitric oxide, which starts several reactions that result in an erection.
If levels of the hormone are too low, a man may not be able to get an erection.
The following are other factors that can cause erectile dysfunction:
- thyroid-related issues
- high cholesterol
- stress or anxiety
- alcohol consumption
- high blood pressure
2. Hair loss
Many men experience hair loss as a natural part of aging, and age-related hair loss can also affect women.
Authors of a study from 2012 found that testosterone implants supported the regrowth of hair in some women who were receiving treatment for symptoms of sex hormone deficiency.
3. Reduced bone mass
Testosterone helps to produce bone tissue and maintain bone volume.
Low testosterone can lead to a reduction in this volume, which can make the bones more susceptible to fractures.
4. Reduction in testicle size
A male with low testosterone may notice a reduction in the size of their testicles that is not related to cold temperatures.
The scrotum may also feel softer than usual.
5. Reduction in the amount of semen
Semen is the fluid that makes up the majority of male ejaculate. This type of fluid helps the sperm move toward the egg.
Testosterone helps stimulate the production of semen, and reduced levels of semen can indicate a reduction in testosterone. It can also lead to trouble with fertility.
6. Difficulty sleeping
Men with low testosterone may find it difficult to fall or stay asleep.
Many males with low testosterone also have sleep apnea. This potentially severe disorder causes a person to temporarily stop breathing, which can disrupt sleep.
7. Lowered sex drive
Men with low testosterone often experience a reduction in sex drive.
A diminishing sex drive occurs naturally with age, but when the cause is low testosterone, a man will notice a significant decrease in the desire for sex.
8. Reduced muscle mass
Testosterone plays a role in the development of muscle mass, and reduced levels of the hormone can result in a significant loss of muscle mass.
However, as low testosterone causes a decrease in mass, the function and strength of the muscles do not diminish, according to the findings of a 2016 review.
9. Hot flashes
While many people associate hot flashes with estrogen levels that fluctuate during menopause, low levels of testosterone may also cause this symptom.
10. A decrease in energy levels
Low testosterone can lead to reduced levels of energy and fatigue.
A person may feel tired, even after adequate rest, or they may develop a diminished interest in exercise or movement.
11. An increase in body fat
A reduction in testosterone can lead to an increase in body fat.
In some cases, men with a deficiency of the hormone develop gynecomastia, which causes an enlargement of the breasts.
12. Changes in mood or mood swings
Some evidence suggests that men with low levels of testosterone are likely to experience a lack of focus, irritability, and depression.
When to see a doctor
A doctor may prescribe testosterone replacement therapy if a person displays a number of symptoms.
Low testosterone does not always present symptoms, and some people only learn about it after a routine physical examination with bloodwork.
However, anyone who experiences one or more of the symptoms listed above should seek medical attention.
To diagnose low testosterone, a doctor will often perform a physical evaluation and review the person’s symptoms. The doctor may also request testing to look for additional signs.
For example, a bone density test can show diminished bone mass, one result of low testosterone.
The most common treatment is testosterone replacement therapy (TRT).
A doctor will typically only prescribe TRT if the person has several symptoms of low testosterone as well as blood test results that indicate a deficiency.
There are several delivery methods of TRT, including:
- skin patches
- tablets that dissolve in the mouth
- surgically implanted pellets that release the hormone
Most people will notice relief from symptoms within 4–6 weeks of starting TRT.
Natural ways to boost testosterone levels
Having a nutrient-rich diet can help improve testosterone levels.
Weight loss and exercise can often increase testosterone levels.
While changes to the lifestyle and diet alone may not raise levels sufficiently, they can often help.
It is important to keep in mind that men typically lose testosterone as they age, and the potential benefits of lifestyle changes also decrease over time. Exercise, for example, often shows more significant results in younger people.
To support a boost in testosterone levels, the diet should be rich in nutrients. It may help to incorporate some of the following foods into the diet:
- fortified cereals
- milk enriched with vitamin D
Avoid natural supplements that promise to increase levels of testosterone. While they may not harm the body, they are unlikely to produce the desired results.
A doctor can often suggest other safe ways to boost testosterone levels.
The American Urology Association report that low testosterone affects around 2 out of every 100 men. The risk increases with age, though most men naturally lose testosterone as they grow older.
Most cases of low testosterone are treatable, and being aware of the symptoms can help a person to receive an early diagnosis and treatment
Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer for which there is no cure. But treatment for this disease has improved greatly in recent years. Patients can live in remission for a long time. The man you’re about to meet was diagnosed with multiple myeloma last year, and after an intense battle, he is winning.
There is a disease that strikes just 300 Americans each year. Yet, it is a nightmare that some have described as a lightening quick version of Alzheimer’s & Parkinson’s diseases combined. For families losing loved ones, research holds the only hope.
Here’s Dennis Douda for Medical Edge.
Every year up to two thousand people in the United States and Canada die from anaphylaxis — a serious allergic reaction. The most common causes are allergies to peanuts, insect bites and seafood. But not all anaphylactic reactions are severe. They can be mild with subtler symptoms. And most people don’t know that if you’ve had a mild reaction in the past, you’re at risk of having a life threatening one in the future. More from Mayo Clinic on a new anaphylaxis awareness campaign.