Lung Cancer Screening – Mayo Clinic

For many years, doctors have known that screening for certain cancers saves lives. Breast cancer and prostate cancer are two examples. Now you can add lung cancer to that list. The National Lung Screening Trial results show screening people at high risk of lung cancer with CT scans lives. To learn more, visit http://mayocl.in/2xJdaq0

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Smart Knee Brace — Mayo Clinic

Forty years ago Army Staff Sgt. Walt Myers was exposed to the herbicide Agent Orange in Vietnam. Now he suffers profound muscle weakness in his legs. He was facing the possibility of spending the rest of his life in a wheelchair. But thanks to a special knee brace developed at Mayo Clinic, Myers is walking tall.

Learn more about the new Mayo Clinic W. Hall Wendel Jr. Musculoskeletal Center by clicking here: http://www.mayoclinic.org/musculoskeletal-center-rst/

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Pancreatic Cancer Survivor – Mayo Clinic

A diagnosis of pancreatic cancer can be devastating news. It is often very aggressive and tough to treat. But research offers great hope for patients in terms of early diagnosis and better treatments. Here’s the story of one woman, a patient at Mayo Clinic, who is winning her battle with pancreatic cancer.

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Freezing Heart Muscle – Mayo Clinic

Mayo Clinic cardiologist Fred Kusumoto, M.D., discusses cryoablation for treatment of atrial arrhythmia. To learn more or to request an appointment, please visit http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/atrial-fibrillation/home/ovc-20164923?mc_id=global&utm_source=youtube&utm_medium=sm&utm_content=dysrhythmiaheart&utm_campaign=mayoclinic&geo=global&placementsite=enterprise&cauid=103944. Atrial fibrillation is an irregular heart rate that can increase the risk of other heart-related complications. Symptoms of atrial fibrillation include dizziness, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Atrial fibrillation also increased the risk of stroke. A new treatment used at Mayo Clinic called cryoablation can aid in the treatment of atrial fibrillation. During the procedure a catheter is inserted into the area of the heart with the arrhythmia and a balloon is deployed freezing the area causing the atrial fibrillation.

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What is Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection or SCAD

Don’t worry — you’re just tired and out of sorts after having your baby. But the chest pain experienced by the woman you’re about to meet was much more than a difficult recovery. She had a heart attack when a rare and deadly condition stopped blood flow to her heart. The same thing happened to another woman. After sharing their stories on social networking sites they found more women with the same problem. That’s when they contacted Mayo Clinic to convince cardiologists to use the information they gathered on the internet to research this condition.

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A spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) (occasionally coronary artery dissection)

is a rare, sometimes fatal traumatic condition, with eighty percent of cases affecting women. One of the coronary arteries develops a tear, causing blood to flow between the layers which forces them apart. Studies of the disease place the mortality rate at around 70%.

SCAD is a primary cause of myocardial infarction (MI) in young, fit, healthy women (and some men) with no obvious risk factors. These can often occur during late pregnancy, postpartum and peri-menopausal periods.

Signs and symptoms

The symptoms are often very similar to those of myocardial infarction (heart attack), with the most common being persistent chest pain.

Causes

SCAD

There is evidence to suggest that a major cause of spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is related to female hormone levels, as most cases appear to arise in pre-menopausal women, although there is evidence that the condition can have various triggers. Other underlying conditions such as hypertension, recent delivery of a baby, fibromuscular dysplasia and connective-tissue disorders (e.g., Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome) may occasionally result in SCAD. There is also a possibility that vigorous exercise can be a trigger. However, many cases have no obvious cause.

Pathophysiology

Coronary artery dissection results from a tear in the inner layer of the artery, the tunica intima. This allows blood to penetrate and cause an intramural hematoma in the central layer, the tunica media, and a restriction in the size of the lumen, resulting in reduced blood flow which in turn causes myocardial infarction and can later cause sudden cardiac death.

Diagnosis

A selective coronary angiogram is the most common method to diagnose the condition, although it is sometimes not recognised until after death.Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is also used as it is able to more easily differentiate the condition from atherosclerotic disease.

Treatment

Treatment is varied depending upon the nature of the case. In asymptomatic and hemodynamically stable patients it may be appropriate to maintain a conservative strategy, especially if coronarography demonstrates adequate coronary flow: in this situation spontaneous healing is usually the most probable evolution. In severe cases, coronary artery bypass surgery is performed to redirect blood flow around the affected area.  Drug-eluting stents and thrombolytic drug therapy are less invasive options for less severe cases. However PCI for spontaneous coronary artery dissection is associated with high rates of technical failure, so in many case a strategy of conservative management may be preferable.

Prognosis

The condition is often fatal and is mostly recognized at postmortem examination in young victims of sudden death.

Epidemiology

The prevalence of spontaneous coronary dissection varies from about 1% to 4% of all coronarography. About eighty percent of cases are in women, with an average age of around 40.

History

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) was first described in the year 1931, at postmortem examination, in a 42 year old woman.

Managing Celiac Disease-Mayo Clinic

Wheat is the grain on which Western civilization was built. It’s been used for thousands of years as the foundation of our diet. But 1 out of 100 Americans has a condition called celiac disease, which is an intolerance to wheat, barley and rye. Its symptoms can be subtle, but if you don’t stick to a gluten-free diet you could be damaging your body and not even know it. More from Mayo Clinic.

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Twelve signs and symptoms of low testosterone

Surviving Multiple Myeloma – Mayo Clinic

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer for which there is no cure. But treatment for this disease has improved greatly in recent years. Patients can live in remission for a long time. The man you’re about to meet was diagnosed with multiple myeloma last year, and after an intense battle, he is winning.

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CJD Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease – Mayo Clinic

There is a disease that strikes just 300 Americans each year. Yet, it is a nightmare that some have described as a lightening quick version of Alzheimer’s & Parkinson’s diseases combined. For families losing loved ones, research holds the only hope.
Here’s Dennis Douda for Medical Edge.

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Be Safe from Anaphylaxis-Mayo Clinic

Every year up to two thousand people in the United States and Canada die from anaphylaxis — a serious allergic reaction. The most common causes are allergies to peanuts, insect bites and seafood. But not all anaphylactic reactions are severe. They can be mild with subtler symptoms. And most people don’t know that if you’ve had a mild reaction in the past, you’re at risk of having a life threatening one in the future. More from Mayo Clinic on a new anaphylaxis awareness campaign.

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UV Exposure: Why Do We Ignore the Health Risks?

 

Published Thursday 17 July 2014

By Honor Whiteman

The sun is shining, so what are your plans? For many of us, the answer will be to hit the beach and soak up the rays. But while you are busy packing beachwear and towels, are you considering the dangers of sun exposure?

Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation – from the sun, tanning beds, lamps or booths – is the main cause of skin cancer, accounting for around 86% of non-melanoma and 90% of melanoma skin cancers. In addition, excessive UV exposure can increase the risk of eye diseases, such as cataract and eye cancers.

The health risks associated with exposure to UV radiation have certainly been well documented, so much so that the World Health Organization (WHO) have now officially classed UV radiation as a human carcinogen.

This year alone, Medical News Today reported on an array of studies warning of UV exposure risks. One study, published in the journal Pediatrics, revealed that tanning bed use among youths can increase the risk of early skin cancer, while other research found that multiple sunburns as an adolescent can increase melanoma risk by 80%.

Furthermore, in response to reported health risks, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently changed their regulation of tanning beds, lamps and booths. Such products must now carry a visible, black-box warning stating that they should not be used by anyone under the age of 18.

How does UV radiation cause damage?

UV radiation consists of three different wavebands: UVA, UVB and UVC. The UVC waveband is the highest-energy UV but has the shortest wavelength, meaning it does not reach the earth’s surface and does not cause skin damage to humans.

However, UVA has a long wavelength and accounts for 95% of solar UV radiation that reaches the earth’s surface, while UVB – with a middle-range wavelength – accounts for the remainder. Tanning beds and tanning lamps primarily emit UVA radiation, sometimes at doses up to 12 times higher than that of the sun.

Both UVA and UVB radiation can damage the skin by penetrating its layers and destroying cellular DNA. UVA radiation tends to penetrate deeper layers of skin, known as the dermis, aging the skin cells and causing wrinkles. UVB radiation is the main cause of skin reddening or sunburn, as it damages the outer layers of the skin, known as the epidermis.

Excessive UV exposure can cause genetic mutations that can lead to the development of skin cancer. The browning of the skin, or a tan, is the skin’s way of trying to stop further DNA damage from occurring.

Of course, it is not only the skin that can be subject to damage from UV radiation. Bright sunlight can penetrate the eye’s surfaces tissues, as well as the cornea and the lens.

Ignoring the risks of UV exposure

But regardless of the numerous studies and health warnings associated with UV exposure, it seems many of us refuse to take note.

A 2012 survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that 50.1% of all adults and 65.6% of white adults ages 18-29 reported suffering sunburn in the past 12 months, indicating that sun protection measures are not followed correctly, if at all.

A more recent study from the University of California-San Francisco stated that the popularity of indoor tanning is “alarming” – particularly among young people.

The study revealed that 35% of adults had been exposed to indoor tanning, with 14% reporting tanning bed use in the past year. Even more of a concern was that 43% of university students and 18% of adolescents reported using tanning beds in the past year.

Overall rates of tanning bed use, the researchers estimate, may lead to an additional 450,000 non-melanoma and 10,000 melanoma skin cancer cases every year.

It seems unbelievable that so many of us are willing to put our health at risk to soak up some sunshine. So why do we do it?

The desire for a ‘healthy tan’

A recent study published in the journal Cell suggested that UV radiation causes the body to release endorphins – “feel-good” hormones – which makes sun exposure addictive.

But Tim Turnham, executive director of the Melanoma Research Foundation, told Medical News Today that many people simply favor a tanned body over health:

“Despite elevated awareness of the dangers of UV radiation, people still choose to ignore the dangers in the pursuit of what they consider to be a ‘healthy tan.’ This is particularly an issue among young people who tend to ignore health risks in favor of enhancing their social status and popularity. We know that tanning appeals to people who are interested in being included, and this is a primary driver for teens – being part of the ‘in’ crowd.”

Anita Blankenship, health communication specialist at the CDC, told us that the desire for a tan is particularly common among young women.

“In the US, nearly 1 in 3 young white women ages 16-25 years engages in indoor tanning each year,” she said. “These young women may experience pressure to conform to beauty standards, and young people may not be as concerned about health risks.”

Turnham agreed, telling us that the indoor tanning industry specifically targets this population. “Aggressive marketing, deep discount and package deals are used routinely by tanning salons, who market their services preferentially to young women,” he said.

Blankenship added that the public are also presented with “conflicting messages” when it comes to the safety of excess UV exposure. She pointed out that a recent US report found that only 7% of tanning salons reported any harmful effects from tanning beds, booths or lamps, while 78% reported health benefits.

“It is important to monitor deceptive health and safety claims about UV exposure, as they may make it difficult for consumers to adequately assess risk,” she told us. “It is important for people to understand that tanned skin is damaged skin, and that damage can lead to wrinkles and early aging of the skin, as well as skin cancer including melanoma – the kind of skin cancer that leads to the most deaths.”

Progress has been made, but more needs to be done

This month is UV Safety Month – an annual campaign that aims to increase public awareness of the health implications caused by UV exposure.

With the help of such campaigns and an increase in studies detailing UV risks, many health care professionals believe there has been a change for the better in attitudes toward UV exposure.

Many health care professionals believe much progress has been made in increasing awareness of UV exposure risks in recent years, but more needs to be done.

“Certainly the scientific community, a number of federal agencies, and possibly the general public are more aware of the risk of UV exposure,” a spokesperson from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) told Medical News Today.

“Action and more coordinated efforts increased markedly about 4 years ago, when a number of epidemiological studies documented the harms of indoor tanning, the FDA held their scientific advisory committee meeting to discuss need for changing indoor tanning device regulations, and they also acted on their previous proposals to change sunscreen regulations.”

The spokesperson continued:

“We think these summaries acted as a catalyst for efforts to make the public and policy makers aware of the risks of indoor tanning, and also they gave a boost to efforts to increase awareness of outdoor sun exposure risks and encourage sun safe protective behaviors.”

In addition, some studies have indicated that many youngsters may even be moving away from the use of tanning beds. A recent Youth Risk Behavior Survey found that among high school students, indoor tanning activity decreased from 15.6% in 2009 to 12.8% in 2013.

Turnham told us that since sunless tanning – such as the use of spray tans – is on the increase, it may be that youngsters are using this as an alternative to tanning salons. But the NCI spokesperson said such an association needs to be investigated before any conclusions can be reached:

“We do not know if changes in indoor tanning are related to increases in use of spray-on and sunless tanning products and services,” they told us. “Some studies indicate that sunless products and services are used by people who continue to engage in indoor tanning, but it is an area we continue to research. We are hopeful that we will be able to measure this in an upcoming national survey supplement that is being developed by NCI and CDC.”

But despite widespread efforts to increase UV safety awareness, Turnham believes there is still a lot more that can be done to protect public health:

“Regulators could and should do much more to fight the ravages of UV exposure. We need federal legislation banning the use of tanning beds by minors. We need more funding for awareness and prevention efforts.”

He added that doctors can also play a role in increasing UV exposure awareness by warning patients of associated risks – something the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommend. They state that health care providers should counsel fair-skinned youths between the ages of 10 and 24 about the risks of indoor tanning and how to protect themselves against UV radiation from the sun.

However, Turnham noted that doctors do not have much time with each patient and proposes that signage in waiting areas warning of the risks of UV exposure may also be effective.

Protecting against UV radiation

Whether there will be further regulation for indoor tanning or an increase in awareness efforts is unclear. But one thing is certain: we can help ourselves to avoid the negative health implications associated with UV exposure.

The American Cancer Society notes young children need extra protection from the sun, as they spend more time outside and can burn easily.

The CDC recommend the following for protecting against UV radiation:

  • Stay in the shade if possible, particularly when the sun is at its strongest – usually around midday
  • Wear clothing that covers your arms and legs
  • Wear a wide-brimmed hat that provides shade for your head, face, ears and neck
  • Wear wrap-around sunglasses that protect against both UVA and UVB radiation
  • Use sunscreen with a minimum sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 that protects against UVA and UVB radiation, and reapply every 2 hours
  • Avoid indoor tanning.

In addition, the American Cancer Society notes young children need extra protection from the sun as they spend more time outside and can burn easily. They add that babies younger than 6 months should be kept out of direct sunlight and be covered with protective clothing. Sunscreen should never be used on an infants skin.

As  we embark on the glorious, sunny days of the summer season and enter into the Fourth of July Celebration, let’s do all we can to protect ourselves and our little ones from UV rays’ potential threats to our skin. Remember, UV rays are the major causes of several deadly skin cancers and sunscreen is one of the most easy and accessible ways to protect against them. So, get out those sunscreen tubes and cover your head with a hat and your eyes with some shades because sun protection is trending today and everyday!

And, if you do find an odd spot on your body’s biggest organ, you can use HealthLynked to find a great physician near you and get the help you need.  Simply go to HealthLynked.com and sign up for free, then Connect and collaborate through HealthLynked to heal your skin!

 

Genes linked with sunburn, skin cancer risk

 

May 8, 2018

Certain genes can determine which people are more at risk of getting sunburn and possibly develop skin cancer as a result..

In a trawl of the genetics of nearly 180,000 people of European ancestry in Britain, Australia, the Netherlands and United States, researchers found 20 sunburn genes.

Eight of the genes had been associated with skin cancer in previous research, according to findings published in the journal Nature Communications.

And in at least one region of the genome, “we have found evidence to suggest that the gene involved in melanoma risk… acts through increasing susceptibility to sunburns,” co-author Mario Falchi of King’s College London told AFP.

Sun exposure is critical for the body’s production of vitamin D, which keeps bones, teeth, and muscles healthy, and which scientists say may help stave off chronic diseases, even cancer.

But too much can be painful in the short-term, and dangerous for your health.

The new study, which claims to be the largest to date into the genetics of sunburn, helps explain why people with the same skin tone can have such different reactions to exposure to sunlight—some burn red while others tan brown.

It may also begin to explain factors in skin cancer risk.
“It is necessary to explore these genes in more detail, to understand the mechanism by which they contribute to propensity to burn,” said Falchi.

In future, the research may help identify people at risk, through genetic testing.

“People tend to ‘forget’ that sunburns are quite dangerous,” said Falchi.

“Given the rise in incidence in skin cancer, we hope that knowing there is a genetic link between sunburn and skin cancer may help in encouraging people to lead a healthy lifestyle.”

More information: Genome-wide association study in 176,678 Europeans reveals genetic loci for tanning response to sun exposure, Nature Communications (2018).
nature.com/articles/doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04086-y
Journal reference: Nature Communications